nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒11‒30
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Talent, Career Choice and Competition: The Gender Wage Gap at the Top By Fredrik Heyman; Pehr-Johan Norbäck; Lars Persson
  2. Gender Stereotype and the Scientific Career of Women: Evidence from Biomedical Research Centers By José García-Montalvo; Daniele Alimonti; Sonja Reiland; Isabelle Vernos
  3. Gender, Labor, and Geography: Mapping the Economic Life Cycles of German-born and Irish-born Immigrants in 1880 New York City By Arsen, Celia
  4. Different Questions, Different Gender Gap: Can the Format of Questions Explain the Gender Gap in Mathematics? By Silvia Griselda

  1. By: Fredrik Heyman; Pehr-Johan Norbäck; Lars Persson
    Abstract: We propose a management career model where females face a gender-specific career hurdle. We show that female managers will, on average, be more skilled than male managers, since females from the low end of the talent distribution will abstain from investing in a career as a manager. The average female manager will then be better at mitigating more intense product market competition. When the intensity of product market competition increases, hirings and wages for female managers will therefore increase relative to those of male managers. Using Swedish matched employer-employee data, we find strong empirical evidence for all these predictions.
    Keywords: career, gender wage-gap, job inflexibility, management, competition
    JEL: J70 L20 M50
    Date: 2020
  2. By: José García-Montalvo; Daniele Alimonti; Sonja Reiland; Isabelle Vernos
    Abstract: Women are underrepresented in the top ranks of the scientific career, including the biomedical disciplines. This is not generally the result of explicit and easily recognizable gender biases but the outcome of decisions with many components of unconscious nature that are difficult to assess. Evidence suggests that implicit gender stereotypes influence perceptions as well as decisions. To explore these potential reasons of women's underrepresentation in life sciences we analyzed the outcome of gender-science and gender-career Implicit Association Tests (IAT) taken by 2,589 scientists working in high profile biomedical research centers. We found that male-science association is less pronounced among researchers than in the general population (34% below the level of the general population). However, this difference is mostly explained by the low level of the IAT score among female researchers. Despite the highly meritocratic view of the academic career, male scientists have a high level of male-science association (261% the level among women scientists), similar to the general population.
    Keywords: gender bias, implicit association test, research centers, scientific career
    JEL: J16 J44 J7 O32
    Date: 2020–10
  3. By: Arsen, Celia
    Abstract: This thesis examines the relationship between gender-based occupational segregation and gender-based residential patterns. Specifically, it finds that that Irish-born immigrants were more likely to be employed in highly gender-segregated occupations than their German-born counterparts. This had a spatial impact on the residential patterns of Irish-born men and women. Because Irish-born immigrants tended to work in highly gender-segregated occupations that were located in different parts of the city, Irish-born men and women disproportionately lived in different areas. The paper discusses some of the historical and contextual factors that explain why Irish-born women were more likely than German-born women to go into highly gender-segregated occupations. Lastly, it shows how this relationship between occupational segregation and geography impacted the economic life cycles of these immigrant women. In particular, it identifies the rate at which women left the workforce after getting married or having children.
    Date: 2020–11–12
  4. By: Silvia Griselda
    Abstract: Standardized assessments are widely used to determine educational and economic opportunities. These standardized assessments exclusively, or in large part, use multiple-choice questions. But multiple-choice exams may not be adequate for comparing studentsâ competencies across genders. In this paper, I show that female students receive lower marks when randomly assigned to exams with a larger proportion of multiple-choice questions. Specifically, a 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of multiple-choice questions widens the gender difference in mathematics performance by 0.026 standard deviations in favor of men, an effect that represents about 50% of the overall gender gap. Moreover, a higher proportion of multiple-choice questions has negative spillovers to other open-ended questions on the same exam. Female students exert less effort than males on tests that contain a larger proportion of multiple-choice questions. I provide suggestive evidence that these results are driven by womenâs lower confidence and by the stereotypes that women face in traditionally male domains.
    JEL: I21 I24 J24
    Date: 2020–11–12

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