nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒11‒23
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Does Gender Matter for Promotion in Science? Evidence from Physicists in France By Jacques MAIRESSE; Michele PEZZONI; Fabiana VISENTIN
  2. Gender Inequality during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Income, Expenditure, Savings, and Job Loss By Dang, Hai-Anh; Nguyen, Cuong Viet
  3. Stereotypes in Financial Literacy: Evidence from PISA By Laura Bottazzi; Annamaria Lusardi
  4. Do Nominations Close the Gender Gap in Competition? By Ifcher, John; Zarghamee, Homa
  5. Can Group Identity Explain Gender Gap in Recruitment Process? By Mavlikeeva, Maria; Asanov, Igor

  1. By: Jacques MAIRESSE (CREST ENSAE (France); UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University (Netherlands); EHESS (France); NBER (USA)); Michele PEZZONI (GREDEG, CNRS, Université Côte d’Azur (France); OST, HCERES, (France); ICRIOS, Bocconi University (Italy)); Fabiana VISENTIN (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University (Netherlands))
    Abstract: In this study, we investigate what are the factors of the promotion of female and male scientists at the French Institute of Physics (INP) at CNRS, one of the largest European public research organizations. We construct a long panel of INP physicists combining various data sources on their research activities and career. Using event history analysis, we find that female and male physicists have the same rate of promotion from junior to senior positions when controlling for research productivity and a variety of other promotion factors. Our results also suggest that promotion factors such as family characteristics, mentoring, professional network, research responsibilities have different impacts on female and male researchers.
    Keywords: Gender disparity, Promotion, Research productivity, Family characteristics, Research Responsibilities, Mentoring activities, Panel Data, Event history analysis.
    JEL: I23 J16
    Date: 2020–11–03
  2. By: Dang, Hai-Anh (World Bank); Nguyen, Cuong Viet (National Economics University Vietnam)
    Abstract: The COVID-19 outbreak has brought unprecedented disruptions to the global economies and has led to income loss and high unemployment rates. But scant, if any, evidence exists on gender gaps in economic outcomes such as income, expenditure, savings, and job loss in a multi-country setting. We investigate the impacts of COVID-19 on gender inequality in these outcomes using data from a six-country survey that covers countries in different geographical locations and at various income levels. Our findings suggest that women are 24 percent more likely to permanently lose their job than men because of the outbreak. Women also expect their labor income to fall by 50 percent more than men do. Perhaps because of these concerns, women tend to reduce their current consumption and increase savings. Factors such as the different participation rates in work industries for men and women may take an important part in explaining these gender gaps. Our estimates also point to country heterogeneity in these gender differences that is likely due to varying infection rates and shares of women in the labor force.
    Keywords: COVID-19, gender gap, income, employment, job loss
    JEL: J16 J21 O12
    Date: 2020–10
  3. By: Laura Bottazzi; Annamaria Lusardi
    Abstract: We examine gender differences in financial literacy among high school students in Italy using data from the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Gender differences in financial literacy are large among the young in Italy. They are present in all regions and are particularly severe in the South and the Islands. Combining the rich PISA data with a variety of other indicators, we provide a thorough analysis of the potential determinants of the gender gap in financial literacy. We find that parental background, in particular the role of mothers, matters for the financial knowledge of girls. Moreover, we show that the social and cultural environment in which girls and boys live plays a crucial role in explaining gender differences. We also show that history matters: Medieval commercial hubs and the nuclear family structure created conditions favorable to the transformation of the role of women in society, and shaped gender differences in financial literacy as well.
    Date: 2020–11
  4. By: Ifcher, John (Santa Clara University); Zarghamee, Homa (Barnard College)
    Abstract: Experiments have demonstrated that men are more willing to compete than women in stereotypically male tasks. We examine whether nominations close this gender gap. For example, are male nominators more willing than female nominators to enter nominees into competitions. Further, we consider the interaction between nominator and nominee gender. For example, do men shy away from entering women into competitions, or do they make them compete too much? We find a gender gap in neither nominators' willingness to enter nominees into competitions, nor in nominees' likelihood to be entered into competitions. Interestingly, male and female nominators willingness to enter nominees into competitions is statistically indistinguishable from women's willingness to enter themselves into competitions. We also find that men are significantly more likely to enter themselves than others into competitions; this suggests that a nominating process that excludes self-nominations could have an equalizing effect on the proportion of men and women who enter competitions. Our results also reinforce the assertion that the gender gap in competitive preferences is driven by the "thrill or fear of performing in a competitive environment (Niederle & Vesterlund, 2007)," as this motivation is absent in decision-making for others.
    Keywords: nominations, preference for competition, willingness to compete, gender gap, decision making for others, DMfO
    JEL: H1 H5 P1
    Date: 2020–11
  5. By: Mavlikeeva, Maria; Asanov, Igor
    Abstract: Despite evidence of the gender wage gap in favor of men, aggregate findings from correspondence studies show that women are more likely than men to be invited for a job interview (Gornall and Strebulaev, 2018). We hypothesize that the predominance of women among recruiters may explain this somewhat puzzling finding; recruiters may favor applicants of their own gender. We use the data from a large-scale correspondence study in Russia to test this hypothesis. As expected, we find that female applicants are more likely to receive callbacks for interview. We also see that in our sample the majority of contact persons responsible for the recruitment process are female. More importantly, we find that if recruiter and applicant are of the same gender, then the likelihood that the applicant will be invited for an interview increases. These findings taken together point out the gender favoritism at the hiring stage in the labor market.
    JEL: J01 J7 C93
    Date: 2020

This nep-gen issue is ©2020 by Jan Sauermann. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.