nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒10‒26
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender Norms and Labor-Supply Expectations: Experimental Evidence from Adolescents By Elisabeth Grewenig; Philipp Lergetporer; Katharina Werner
  2. The Geography of Jobs and the Gender Wage Gap By Sitian Liu; Yichen Su
  3. The Genius is a Male: Stereotypes and Same-Sex Bias in Exam Grading in Economics at Stockholm University By Jansson, Joakim; Tyrefors, Björn
  4. Productivity Versus Motivation in Adolescent Human Capital Production: Evidence from a Structurally-Motivated Field Experiment By Christopher Cotton; Brent Hickman; John List; Joseph Price; Sutanuka Roy

  1. By: Elisabeth Grewenig; Philipp Lergetporer; Katharina Werner
    Abstract: Gender gaps in labor-market outcomes often emerge with arrival of the first child. We investigate a causal link between gender norms and labor-supply expectations within a survey experiment among 2,000 German adolescents. Using a hypothetical scenario, we document that most girls expect to work 20 hours or less per week when having a young child, and expect from their partners to work 30 hours or more. Randomized treatments that highlight the existing traditional norm towards mothers, significantly reduce girls’ self-expected labor supply and thereby increase the expected gender difference in labor supply between their partners and themselves (i.e., the expected within-family gender gap). Treatment effects persist in a follow-up survey two weeks later, and extend to incentivized outcomes. In a second experiment conducted in the follow-up survey, we highlight another, more gender-egalitarian, norm towards shared household responsibilities and show that this attenuates the expected within-family gender gap. Together our results suggest that social norms play an important role in shaping gender gaps in labor-market outcomes around child birth.
    Keywords: gender norms, female labor supply, survey experiment
    JEL: J16 J22 C93 D83
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Sitian Liu; Yichen Su
    Abstract: Prior studies have shown that women are more willing to trade off wages for short commutes than men. Given the gender difference in commuting preferences, we show that the wage return to commuting (i.e., the wage penalty for reducing commute time) that stems from the spatial distribution of jobs contributes to the gender wage gap. We propose a simple job choice model, which predicts that differential commuting preferences would lead to a larger gender wage gap for workers who face greater wage returns to commuting based on their locations of residence and occupations. We then show empirical evidence that validates the model's prediction. Moreover, we estimate the model components: (i) the indifference curves between wages and commutes by gender, and (ii) the wage return to commuting faced by each worker. Our model shows that differential commuting choices account for about 16-21% of the gender wage gap on average, but the contribution varies widely across residential locations. The model also shows that policies that increase commute speed or density in the central city neighborhoods could moderately lower the gender wage gap.
    Keywords: Gender wage gap; commuting; spatial distribution of jobs
    JEL: J16 J22 J31 R12 R41
    Date: 2020–10–02
  3. By: Jansson, Joakim (Linnaeus University); Tyrefors, Björn (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: We use the random allocation of graders to different exam questions at Stockholm University to evaluate the existence of same-sex bias in exam correction. We find evidence of same-sex bias before anonymous exams were introduced. Notably, once anonymous grading was in place, the effect disappears. When separating the effects by grader´s sex, both groups of graders favor male students, although male graders favor male students to a larger extent than female graders. Again, after anonymous grading was introduced, the effect disappears. There is no evidence of compositional changes across the pre-and post-anonymous grading regimes. In sum, our finding is consistent with theories of stereotyping, e.g., the genius being male.
    Keywords: Grading bias; University; Discrimination; Education; Anonymous grading; Same-sex bias
    JEL: I23 J16
    Date: 2020–10–06
  4. By: Christopher Cotton; Brent Hickman; John List; Joseph Price; Sutanuka Roy
    Abstract: We leverage a field experiment across three distinct school districts to identify key pieces of a structural model of adolescent human capital production. Out focus is inspired by the contemporary psychology of education literature, which expresses learning as a function of the ratio of the time spent on learning to the time needed to learn. By capturing two crucial student-level unobservables- which we denote as academic efficiency (turning inputs into outputs) and time preference (motivation)- our field experiment lends insights into the underpinnings of adolescent skill formation and provides a novel view of how to lessen racial and gender achievement gaps. One general insight is that students who are falling behind their peers, whether correlated to race, gender, or school district, are doing so because of academic efficiency rather than time preference. We view this result, and others found in our data, as fundamental to practitioners, academics, and policymakers interested in designing strategies to provide equal opportunities to students.
    Date: 2020

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