nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒10‒19
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Professional networking by gender: A case study on LinkedIn contacts for a professor in science By Olsson, Anders Lindh; Snellman, Markus; Deppert, Knut; Lövkrona, Inger
  2. The Pandemic Penalty: The gendered effects of COVID-19 on scientific productivity By King, Molly M.; Frederickson, Megan
  3. Non-Standard Employment and Wage Differences across Gender: a quantile regression approach By Duman, Anil
  4. The Labour Force Status of Transgender People and The Impact of Removing Surgical Requirements to Change Gender on ID Documents By Mann, Samuel
  5. Wind of Change? Cultural Determinants of Maternal Labor Supply By Barbara Boelmann; Anna Raute; Uta Schönberg

  1. By: Olsson, Anders Lindh; Snellman, Markus; Deppert, Knut; Lövkrona, Inger
    Abstract: In this study, we used data from LinkedIn networks to gain insight in how different groups network in terms of network size and gender composition among men and women. We have gathered categorical data from 751 LinkedIn networks to quantitatively analyze networking tendencies and network gender compositions in the categories gender, age, sector of work, fi?eld of work, level of education and area of residence. We have also determined networking "savviness" as a quantitative measure of social networking for comparing groups in the categories. The observations made regarding networking behavior among female and male LinkedIn users include that women on average had more female contacts than men in all categories. Female networks working in a non-technical fi?eld were found to have the most gender equal networks of all groups with an average of 42.5% female contacts. The data show further, that men and women in STEM and the private sector were savvier networkers and that users with a PhD had fewer female contacts on average than those without a PhD. Further, Scandinavian networks had signi?cantly more female contacts in their networks than networks from other European countries and North America had.
    Date: 2020–10–02
  2. By: King, Molly M. (Santa Clara University); Frederickson, Megan
    Abstract: Academia provides a valuable case study for evaluating the effects of social forces on workplace productivity, using a concrete measure of output: the scholarly paper. Many academics -- especially women -- have experienced unprecedented challenges to scholarly productivity with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we analyze the gender composition of over 450,000 authorships of scholarly preprints in the preprint repositories arXiv and bioRxiv from before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. This analysis reveals that the underrepresentation of women scientists in the prestige last authorship position necessary for retention and promotion is only getting more inequitable. We find differences between the arXiv and bioRxiv repositories in how gender affects first, middle, and sole authorship submission rates before and during the pandemic. In a second contribution, we review existing research and theory that could explain the mechanisms behind this widening gender gap in productivity during COVID-19. Finally, we aggregate recommendations for institutional change that could help ameliorate challenges to women's productivity during the pandemic and beyond.
    Date: 2020–09–12
  3. By: Duman, Anil
    Abstract: The paper aims to identify the effect of non-standard employment on wages in the Turkish labour market across gender and decompose the gap to understand the role of endowments and returns in generating the earning differences. Our findings show that non-standard employment reduces wages for women at every quantile but no such results are attained for men. Besides, females with standard jobs in Turkey earn more than men, however, the opposite holds for females in non-standard positions. Also, a big part of the gender pay gap is attributable to returns, especially at the lower end of the distribution. Women in low-paid and atypical jobs face larger pay gaps, and the role of unexplained component suggests they are discriminated. The distinct impact of non-standard employment on men and women suggest that policies geared towards labour market flexibilisation should take gender perspective into account.
    Keywords: Non-standard employment,Gender pay gap,Quantile regressions,Recentered Influence Function (RIF),Decomposition,Discrimination
    JEL: J31 J24 J41
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Mann, Samuel
    Abstract: This paper uses data from the BRFSS over the period 2014-2019 to analyse the impact of removing surgical requirements to change legal gender. In many states transgender people are forced to undergo surgical procedures if they wish to change their gender on ID documents, which can be invasive, expensive, and is not always desired. In the present work state variation in the timing of the removal of surgical requirements is exploited within a triple difference framework to analyse the causal impact of these removals on the labour force participation and employment of transgender people. The findings highlight the detrimental economic impact of surgical requirements for transgender people to be able to reassign gender on birth certificates, especially for those individuals that are least likely to be able to afford surgical treatment.
    Keywords: Gender Identity,Trans,Employment,Self-Employment,Discrimination,Law,Birth Certificates
    JEL: J15 J16 J71 J78 K31
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Barbara Boelmann (Department of Economics, University College London, CReAM and University of Cologne); Anna Raute (Queen Mary University of London, CReAM and CEPR); Uta Schönberg (University College London, CReAM and IAB)
    Abstract: Does the culture in which a woman grows up influence her labor market decisions once she has had a child? To what extent might the culture of her present social environment shape maternal labor supply? To address these questions, we exploit the setting of German reunification. A state socialist country, East Germany strongly encouraged mothers to participate in the labor market full-time, whereas West Germany propagated a more traditional male breadwinner-model. After reunification, these two cultures were suddenly thrown together, with consequent increased social interactions between East and West Germans through migration and commuting. A comparison of East and West German mothers on both sides of the former Inner German border within the same commuting zone shows that culture matters. Indeed, East German mothers return to work more quickly and for longer hours than West German mothers even two decades after reunification. Second, in exploiting migration across this old border, we document a strong asymmetry in the persistence of the culture in which women were raised. Whereas East German female migrants return to work earlier and work longer hours than their West German colleagues even after long exposure to the more traditional West German culture, West German migrants adjust their post-birth labor supply behavior nearly entirely to that of their East German colleagues. Finally, taking advantage of differential inflows of East German migrants across West German firms in the aftermath of reunification, we show that even a partial exposure to East German colleagues induces “native†West German mothers to accelerate their return to work after childbirth, suggesting that migration might be a catalyst for cultural change.
    Keywords: cultural transmission, social norms, maternal labor force participation, German reunification
    JEL: J1 J2 Z1
    Date: 2020–10

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