nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒09‒14
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Native-Immigrant Differences in the Effect of Children on the Gender Pay Gap By Nieto Castro Adrian
  2. Him or her? Choosing competition on behalf of someone else By Helena Fornwagner; Monika Pompeo; Nina Serdarevic
  3. Women in Economics: A UK Perspective By Gamage, Danula K.; Sevilla, Almudena; Smith, Sarah
  4. Selection into Leadership and Dishonest Behavior of Leaders: A Gender Experiment By Kerstin Grosch, Kerstin; Müller, Stephan; Rau, Holger A.; Zhurakhovska, Lilia
  5. Is there a gender bias in intergenerational mobility?: Evidence from Cameroon By Rose Fontep; Kunal Sen
  6. Explicit and implicit belief-based gender discrimination: A hiring experiment By Barron, Kai; Ditlmann, Ruth; Gehrig, Stefan; Schweighofer-Kodritsch, Sebastian
  7. Pension Information and Women's Awareness By Angelici, Marta; Del Boca, Daniela; Oggero, Noemi; Profeta, Paola; Rossi, Maria Cristina; Villosio, Claudia
  8. Network effects and the appointment of female board members in Japan By Matthias Raddant; Hiroshi Takahashi

  1. By: Nieto Castro Adrian
    Abstract: This paper explores gender differences in the career paths of immigrant and native parents before and after childbirth using Spanish administrative data and an event study specification. I find an important gender pay gap emerging after childbirth for both immigrants and natives, but immigrants suffer from a higher loss in earnings than natives. I show important native-immigrant differences in potential drivers behind the gender pay gap. After childbirth, mothers reduce their labour participation and are more often unemployed, part-time and temporary employed than fathers. The gender gaps in labour participation and part-time work are higher for natives, while the gender gaps in unemployment and permanent employment for immigrants. Finally, I investigate whether the deterioration of mothers' career originates from workers' or employers' decisions. After childbirth, mothers quit their job less, but temporarily stop working and are dismissed more than fathers. The gender gap in temporary leaves is higher for natives, while the gender gap in dismissals for immigrants.
    Keywords: immigrant; native; gender gap; inequality; children
    JEL: J13 J15 J16 J31 J61 J70
    Date: 2020–06
  2. By: Helena Fornwagner (University of Innsbruck); Monika Pompeo (University of Nottingham); Nina Serdarevic (University of Bergen)
    Abstract: We extend the literature on competitive behaviour by investigating environments in which the choice to compete is not made by an individual themselves, but by someone else. Choosing on behalf of others is an integral part of life and gender may be an important factor in shaping the perceived suitability of individuals for career promotions in competitive environments. We assign subjects either the role of an agent or a principal in an experiment. Agents perform a real effort task and a randomly assigned principal chooses whether the agent performs under a piece rate or tournament incentive scheme. Before making a decision for the agent, we vary whether the principal is informed about the agent’s gender or not. Regardless of whether gender is revealed, we ï¬ nd no gender gap in competitiveness when principals are choosing for agents. In terms of determinants of the principals’ choices, we observe that expectations about their agent’s performance, as well as the principal’s own preferences for risk and competitiveness matter for the decision to make others compete. In addition, we replicate existing results reporting that women are less willing to enter the tournament than men when choosing themselves. We compare both decision environments and show that efficiency (deï¬ ned as average performance and earnings) does not suffer, whereas the winners’ performance is lower when principals decide for agents. Taken together, our results suggest that allowing others to decide has the potential to increase the representation of women in competitive situations, many of which resemble the labour market.
    Keywords: competitiveness, gender differences, decision-making for others, laboratory experiment
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Gamage, Danula K. (Queen Mary, University of London); Sevilla, Almudena (University College London); Smith, Sarah (University of Bristol)
    Abstract: The status of women in economics in the US has come increasingly under the spotlight. We exploit high quality administrative data to paint the first comprehensive picture of the status of women in UK academic economics departments in research-intensive universities. Our evidence indicates that, as in the US, women in economics are under-represented and are paid less than men. The issues facing women in economics in the UK are similar to other disciplines particularly STEM but have received less national policy attention to date. We conclude with a discussion of interventions that might improve the status of women in academia and we present new evidence that a UK academic diversity programme (Athena Swan) has narrowed the gender pay gap at a senior level.
    Keywords: gender, affirmative action, academia, women in economics, gender wage gap
    JEL: A14
    Date: 2020–07
  4. By: Kerstin Grosch, Kerstin (Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna, Austria); Müller, Stephan (University of Goettingen, Germany); Rau, Holger A. (University of Goettingen, Germany); Zhurakhovska, Lilia (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
    Abstract: Leaders often have to weigh ethical against monetary consequences. Such situations may evoke psychological costs from being dishonest and dismissing higher monetary benefits for others. In a within-subjects experiment, we analyze such a dilemma. We first measure individual dishonest behavior when subjects report the outcome of a die roll, which determines their payoffs. Subsequently, they act as leaders and report payoffs for a group including themselves. In our main treatment, subjects can apply for leadership, whereas in the control treatment, we assign leadership randomly. Results reveal that women behave more dishonestly as leaders while men behave similarly in both the individual and the group decision. For female leaders, we find that sorting into leadership is not related to individual honesty preferences. In the control we find that female leaders do not increase dishonesty. A follow-up study reveals that female leaders become more dishonest after assuming leadership, as they align dishonest behavior with their belief on group members’ honesty preferences.
    Keywords: leadership, decision for others, lab experiment, gender differences, dishonesty
    JEL: C91 H26 J16
    Date: 2020–08
  5. By: Rose Fontep; Kunal Sen
    Abstract: We examine the intergenerational mobility of women relative to men, using paired mother-daughter and father-son data on occupation and education for Cameroon. We find that both in occupation and education, intergenerational mobility is higher for sons than for daughters. The intergenerational transmission of occupation is particularly strong for women in low-paid occupations as compared with men. In the case of educational mobility, the effect of the mother's education on the daughter's education is strongest at the post-primary levels.
    Keywords: Occupational mobility, Educational mobility, Intergenerational Mobility, Gender, Cameroon
    Date: 2020
  6. By: Barron, Kai; Ditlmann, Ruth; Gehrig, Stefan; Schweighofer-Kodritsch, Sebastian
    Abstract: Understanding discrimination is key for designing policy interventions that promote equality in society. Economists have studied the topic intensively, typically taxonomizing discrimination as either taste-based or (accurate) statistical discrimination. To enrich this taxonomy, we design a hiring experiment that rules out both of these sources of discrimination along the gender dimension. Yet, we still detect substantial discrimination against women. We provide evidence of two forms of discrimination, explicit and implicit belief-based discrimination. Both rely on statistically inaccurate beliefs but differ in how clearly they reveal the decision-maker's gender bias. Our analysis highlights the central role played by contextual features of the choice environment in determining whether and how discrimination will manifest. We conclude by discussing how policy makers may design effective regulation to address specific forms of discrimination.
    Keywords: Discrimination,Hiring Decisions,Gender,Beliefs,Experiment
    JEL: D90 J71 D83
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Angelici, Marta (University of Milan Bicocca); Del Boca, Daniela (University of Turin); Oggero, Noemi (University of Turin); Profeta, Paola (Bocconi University); Rossi, Maria Cristina (University of Turin); Villosio, Claudia (Collegio Carlo Alberto)
    Abstract: We explore the role of financial and pension information in increasing women's knowledge and awareness of their future pension status, and consequently, in reducing the gender pension gap. A representative sample of 1249 Italian working women were interviewed to assess their knowledge about pensions and financial issues and about their own savings and personal wealth planned for retirement. The responses showed that their knowledge and awareness of retirement planning was limited. We then ran a randomized experiment to evaluate the effect of increased information regarding pensions on women's awareness, knowledge, and behaviors. Women in the treated group were provided information in the form of three short online tutorials. A follow-up survey shows that these women became more interested and aware of pension schemes and retirement options after completing the tutorials and were more likely to be better informed and keen to obtain further information. When looking at changes in behavior, we find that treated women who are closer to retirement are more likely to believe that they would make different work-life decisions if they received specific pension information in a timely fashion. They are also more likely to have a supplementary pension fund if they are concerned about their standard of living after retirement.
    Keywords: women, pension, savings, financial education
    JEL: H31 J22
    Date: 2020–08
  8. By: Matthias Raddant; Hiroshi Takahashi
    Abstract: We investigate the dynamics in the networks of Japanese corporates and its interplay with the appointment of female board members. We find that firms with female board members show homophily with respect to gender and often have above average profitability. We also find that new appointments of women are more likely at boards which observe female board members at other firms to which they are tied by either ownership relations or corporate board interlocks.
    Date: 2020–07

This nep-gen issue is ©2020 by Jan Sauermann. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.