nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒09‒07
nine papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Overconfidence and Gender Differences in Wage Expectations By Briel, Stephanie; Osikominu, Aderonke; Pfeifer, Gregor; Reutter, Mirjam; Satlukal, Sascha
  2. The Gender Gap in Time Allocation in Europe By Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Molina, José Alberto
  3. Gender Stereotyping in Sports By Marcén, Miriam; Morales, Marina; Sevilla, Almudena
  4. Women in the Pipeline : A Dynamic Decomposition of Firm Pay Gaps By Das,Jishnu; Joubert,Clement Jean Edouard
  5. Do unions and works councils really dampen the gender pay gap? Discordant evidence from Germany By Oberfichtner, Michael; Schnabel, Claus; Töpfer, Marina
  6. Competition and Career Advancement: The Hidden Costs of Paid Leave By Julian Johnsen; Hyejin Ku; Kjell Salvanes
  7. The Gendered Division of Paid and Domestic Work under Lockdown By Andrew, Alison; Cattan, Sarah; Costa Dias, Monica; Farquharson, Christine; Kraftman, Lucy; Krutikova, Sonya; Phimister, Angus; Sevilla, Almudena
  8. Changes in Female Employment in Mexico : Demographics, Economics, and Policies By Lopez-Acevedo,Gladys C.; Freije-Rodriguez,Samuel; Vergara Bahena,Mexico Alberto; Cardozo Medeiros,Diego
  9. Do Women Face a Glass Ceiling at Home? The Division of Household Labor among Dual-Earner Couples By Tomas Lichard; Filip Pertold; Samuel Skoda

  1. By: Briel, Stephanie (University of Hohenheim); Osikominu, Aderonke (University of Hohenheim); Pfeifer, Gregor (University College London); Reutter, Mirjam (University of Hohenheim); Satlukal, Sascha (University of Hohenheim)
    Abstract: We analyze the impact of (over-)confidence on gender differences in expected starting salaries using elicited beliefs of prospective university students in Germany. According to our results, female students have lower wage expectations and are less overconfident than their male counterparts. Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions of the mean show that 7.7% of the gender gap in wage expectations is attributable to a higher overconfidence of males. Decompositions of the unconditional quantiles of expected salaries suggest that the contribution of gender differences in confidence to the gender gap is particularly strong at the bottom and top of the wage expectation distribution.
    Keywords: gender pay gap, wage expectations, overconfidence, decomposition analyses, unconditional quantile regressions (RIF-Regressions)
    JEL: J16 D84 D91 C21
    Date: 2020–07
  2. By: Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio (University of Zaragoza); Molina, José Alberto (University of Zaragoza)
    Abstract: This article explores the gender gap in time allocation in Europe, offering up-to-date statistics and information on several factors that may help to explain these differences. Prior research has identified several factors affecting the time individuals devote to paid work, unpaid work, and child care, and the gender gaps in these activities, but most research refers to single countries, and general patterns are rarely explored. Cross-country evidence on gender gaps in paid work, unpaid work, and child care is offered, and explanations based on education, earnings, and household structure are presented, using data from the EUROSTAT and the Multinational Time Use Surveys. There are large cross-country differences in the gender gaps in paid work, unpaid work, and child care, which remain after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, although the gender gap in paid work dissipates when the differential gendered relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and paid work is taken into account. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of gender gaps in Europe, helping to focus recent debates on how to tackle inequality in Europe, and clarifying the factors that contribute to gender inequalities in the uses of time.
    Keywords: paid work, unpaid work, gender gap, European countries, earnings, household structure
    JEL: D10 J16 J22
    Date: 2020–07
  3. By: Marcén, Miriam (University of Zaragoza); Morales, Marina (University of Zaragoza); Sevilla, Almudena (University College London)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the literature of gender differences in academic attainment by putting together several sources of data going back several decades to investigate how gender stereotypes and parental time investments shape sport choices of boys and girls during high school. Using data from the 2002-2019 National Federation of State High School Association, which provides information for every state on the total number of high school participants by gender in each sport, we document that states with more gender-equal norms are also states where boys and girls tend to break stereotypes when making sport choices in high school. We also identify parental time investments as being an important cultural-transmission mechanism.
    Keywords: gender, stereotypes, bias, sports
    JEL: J10 J16 J18
    Date: 2020–07
  4. By: Das,Jishnu; Joubert,Clement Jean Edouard
    Abstract: This paper proposes a new decomposition method to understand how gender pay gaps arise within firms. The method accounts for pipeline effects, nonstationary environments, and dynamic interactions between pay gap components. This paper assembles a new data set covering all employees at the World Bank Group between 1987 and 2015 and shows that historical differences in the positions for which men and women were hired account for 77 percent of today's average salary difference, dwarfing the roles of entry salaries, salary growth, or retention. Forward simulations show that 20 percent of the total gap can be assigned to pipeline effects that would resolve mechanically with time.
    Keywords: Gender and Development,Labor Markets,Inequality,Human Rights,Disability
    Date: 2020–06–23
  5. By: Oberfichtner, Michael; Schnabel, Claus; Töpfer, Marina
    Abstract: Using a large employer-employee dataset, we provide new evidence on the relationship between the gender pay gap and industrial relations from within German workplaces. Controlling for unobserved workplace heterogeneity, we find no evidence that introducing or abandoning collective agreements or works councils affects the gender pay gap. This result holds at the mean and along the distribution, challenging the stylized fact that unions and works councils dampen the gender pay gap.
    Keywords: gender pay gap,industrial relations,works council,collective bargaining,Germany
    JEL: J31 J50
    Date: 2020
  6. By: Julian Johnsen (Norwegian School of Economics); Hyejin Ku (University College London); Kjell Salvanes (Norges Handelshøyskole)
    Abstract: Does leave-taking matter for young workers’ careers? If so, why? We propose the competition effect—relative leave status of workers affecting their relative standing inside the firm—as a new explanation. Exploiting a policy reform that exogenously assigned four-week paid paternity leave to some new fathers, we find evidence consistent with the competition effect: A worker enjoys a better post-child earnings trajectory when a larger share of his colleagues take leave because of the policy. In contrast, we find no direct earnings effect resulting from the worker’s own leave when controlling for their relative leave eligibility status within the firm.
    Keywords: leave of absence, career interruptions, ranking, tournament, promotion, gender gap
    JEL: M51 M52 J16 J22 J24 J31
    Date: 2020–08
  7. By: Andrew, Alison (Institute for Fiscal Studies, London); Cattan, Sarah (Institute for Fiscal Studies, London); Costa Dias, Monica (Institute for Fiscal Studies, London); Farquharson, Christine (Institute for Fiscal Studies, London); Kraftman, Lucy (Institute for Fiscal Studies, London); Krutikova, Sonya (Institute for Fiscal Studies, London); Phimister, Angus (Institute for Fiscal Studies, London); Sevilla, Almudena (University College London)
    Abstract: COVID-19 has uprooted many aspects of parents' daily routines, from their jobs to their childcare arrangements. In this paper, we provide a novel description of how parents in England living in two-parent opposite-gender families are spending their time under lockdown. We find that mothers' paid work has taken a larger hit than that of fathers', on both the extensive and intensive margins. We find that mothers are spending substantially longer in childcare and housework than their partners and that they are spending a larger fraction of their paid work hours having to juggle work and childcare. Gender differences in the allocation of domestic work cannot be straightforwardly explained by gender differences in employment rates or earnings. Very large gender asymmetries emerge when one partner has stopped working for pay during the crisis: mothers who have stopped working for pay do far more domestic work than fathers in the equivalent situation do.
    Keywords: COVID-19, gender, childcare, Coronavirus
    JEL: J21 J22 J24 J33 J63
    Date: 2020–07
  8. By: Lopez-Acevedo,Gladys C.; Freije-Rodriguez,Samuel; Vergara Bahena,Mexico Alberto; Cardozo Medeiros,Diego
    Abstract: The unemployment and labor force participation gender gaps narrowed in Mexico after the 2008 global economic crisis, when female labor force participation increased. This paper aims to understand female labor force participation growth and identify its main determinants. For that purpose, the paper estimates a probit model with data from the National Employment Survey of 2007 and 2017, when the unemployment rate returned to the pre-crisis level. Broadly, the results show that increasing labor force participation of women ages 36 to 65 sustained the growth of overall female labor force participation, women's educational attainment can offset any individual or household obstacle to women's employability, and childcare availability significantly supports mothers'employability.
    Date: 2020–06–23
  9. By: Tomas Lichard; Filip Pertold; Samuel Skoda
    Abstract: In this paper we ask how the division of household labor varies across heterosexual dual-earner couples with different relative wages with a focus on differences between Southern and Western Europe. Using the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions we first show that high income married or cohabiting women do twice as much housework as single women in Southern Europe. Further, their time spent in household production relative to their spouses’ time in Southern Europe is the same regardless of their relative wages, while in Western Europe we find positive elasticity of substitution in household production with respect to relative wages. We thus present positive evidence for the presence of a “second-shift” that women face in Southern Europe, which may stem from regional gender norms. Our findings hold after instrumenting for relative wages using the relative wages of similar socio-economic groups in other countries.
    Keywords: household production; division of labor; gender gap; elasticity of substitution;
    JEL: J12 J16 D13
    Date: 2020–08

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