nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒08‒24
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Changes in Female Employment in Mexico: Demographics, Economics, and Policies By Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys; Freije-Rodriguez, Samuel; Vergara Bahena, Mexico Alberto; Cardozo Medeiros, Diego
  2. Female Labor Force Participation in Turkey: The Role of the Intergenerational Links By Mine Durman-Aslan
  3. Promoting Female Interest in Economics: Limits to Nudges By Pugatch, Todd; Schroeder, Elizabeth
  4. Advancing the Agency of Adolescent Girls By Eric V. Edmonds; Benjamin Feigenberg; Jessica Leight
  5. Gender Pension Gaps in a Private Retirement Accounts System : A Dynamic Model of Household Labor Supply and Savings By Joubert,Clement Jean Edouard

  1. By: Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys (World Bank); Freije-Rodriguez, Samuel (World Bank); Vergara Bahena, Mexico Alberto (World Bank); Cardozo Medeiros, Diego (University of Chicago)
    Abstract: The unemployment and labor force participation gender gaps narrowed in Mexico after the 2008 global economic crisis, when female labor force participation increased. This paper aims to understand female labor force participation growth and identify its main determinants. For that purpose, the paper estimates a probit model with data from the National Employment Survey of 2007 and 2017, when the unemployment rate returned to the pre-crisis level. Broadly, the results show that increasing labor force participation of women ages 36 to 65 sustained the growth of overall female labor force participation, women's educational attainment can offset any individual or household obstacle to women's employability, and childcare availability significantly supports mothers' employability.
    Keywords: female labor force participation, Mexico, gender gap, female education, childcare services
    JEL: J21 J22 O54
    Date: 2020–06
  2. By: Mine Durman-Aslan (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: This study investigates the impact of the transmission of gender role attitudes and/or preferences from parents to children on the labor force participation decision of married women in Turkey. Using parents-children data we estimate a reduced-form model in which a married woman's participation in adulthood depends on her mother's and mother-in-law's former labor force participation in her adolescence. Our estimation results show that married women grown up with working mothers are 10.8 - 17.8 percent more likely to participate in the labor force than married women with nonworking mothers and married women with working mothers-in-law are 9.3 - 17.3 percent more likely to be in the labor force than married women with nonworking mothers-in-law. In addition, the estimated effects of mother's and the mothers-in-law's former labor force participation in rural sample are larger than those in the urban sample. We also find that as the education level of married women increases, the effect of being raised by a working mother on female labor force participation decreases. Having a husband grown up with a working mother increases the probability that a married woman with less than a high school education participates in the labor force; however, it is not a significant determinant of the labor force participation decision of highly educated women. Our findings reveal that the intergenerational transmission of gender role attitudes and/or preferences influences the labor market behavior of married women in Turkey. More importantly, higher education reduces the effect of intergenerational transmission of gender role attitudes and/or preferences on female labor force participation.
    Keywords: Female labor force participation,Marriage,Intergenerational social norm,Turkey
    Date: 2020–05
  3. By: Pugatch, Todd; Schroeder, Elizabeth
    Abstract: Why is the proportion of women who study Economics so low? This study assesses whether students respond to messages about majoring in Economics, and whether this response varies by student gender. We conducted an experiment among more than 2,000 students enrolled in Economics Principles courses, with interventions proceeding in two phases. In the first phase, randomly assigned students received a message with basic information about the Economics major, or the basic message combined with an emphasis on the rewarding careers or financial returns associated with the major. A control group received no such messages. In the second phase, all students receiving a grade of B- or better received a message after the course ended encouraging them to major in Economics. For a randomly chosen subset of these students, the message also encouraged them to persist in Economics even if their grade was disappointing. The basic message increased the proportion of male students majoring in Economics by 2 percentage points, equivalent to the control mean. We find no significant effects for female students. Extrapolating to the full sample, the basic message would nearly double the male/female ratio among Economics majors. Our results suggest the limits of light-touch interventions to promote diversity in Economics.
    Keywords: college major choice,gender gap in Economics,higher education,nudges,randomized control trial
    JEL: I21 I23
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Eric V. Edmonds; Benjamin Feigenberg; Jessica Leight
    Abstract: Can life skills be taught in early adolescence? Using a clustered randomized control trial, this study analyzes the impact of a school-based life skills intervention in grades six and seven within a sample of 2,459 girls in Rajasthan, India. Our evidence suggests that the intervention is successful in developing stronger life skills including increased agency, more equitable gender norms, and stronger socio-emotional support. Girls also drop out of school at a lower rate: we observe an approximately 25 percent decline in dropout that persists from seventh grade through the transition to high school.
    JEL: I25 J16 O15
    Date: 2020–07
  5. By: Joubert,Clement Jean Edouard
    Abstract: This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of individuals'and couples'labor supply, savings, and retirement decisions to analyze how the design of a privatized pension system affects gender pension gaps. Chile has one of the longest running nationwide private retirements accounts systems in the world, operating since 1980. It has served as a model for many countries and was reformed in 2008 to alleviate old- age poverty and reduce gender pension gaps. The paper estimates the dynamic model using pre-reform data and compares the model's short-term predictions with available evidence on the reform's causal impacts. The analysis finds that household structure is an important determinant of the behavioral and distributional impacts of the reform. The paper evaluates how actual and counterfactual changes in the pension system design affect men's and women's economic decisions, pension receipts, and program costs over a longer time horizon. Three design features significantly reduce gender pension gaps: expanding minimum pension benefit eligibility, providing a per-child pension bonus, and increasing women's retirement age to be equal to men's.
    Keywords: Pensions&Retirement Systems,Gender and Development,Labor Markets,Health Care Services Industry
    Date: 2020–07–16

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