nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒08‒17
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Equilibrium Wage-Setting and the Life-Cycle Gender Pay Gap By Amano-Patiño, N.; Baron, T.; Xiao, P.
  2. Gender differences in submission strategies? A survey of early-career economists By Christina Gravert; Katrine Thornfeldt Sørensen
  3. Trade liberalization and the gender employment gap in China By Wang, Feicheng; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Zhou, Minghai
  4. Can competitiveness predict education and labor market outcomes? Evidence from incentivized choice and survey measures By Thomas Buser; Muriel Niederle; Hessel Oosterbeek
  5. Does Pay Transparency Affect the Gender Wage Gap? Evidence from Austria By Andreas Gulyas; Sebastian Seitz; Sourav Sinha
  6. Tackling the Gender Gap in Math with Active Learning Teaching Practices. By Di Tommaso, Maria Laura; Contini, Dalit; De Rosa, Dalila; Piazzalunga, Daniela

  1. By: Amano-Patiño, N.; Baron, T.; Xiao, P.
    Abstract: This paper quantifies both worker- and firm-side determinants of the life-cycle gender wage gap. Equally productive men and women could face different wage offers as employers expect gender differences in mobility behaviors, human capital dynamics, and fertility-related interruptions. We develop an equilibrium search model with human capital dynamics and estimate it on NLSY79 data. We find that firms’ differential wage offers towards men and women account for 55% of the gender wage gap for high school graduates and 47% for college graduates, whereas the gender difference in human capital levels is important only for the college group in late career. Gender gaps in search capital and job segregation play a relatively small role. Policies that improve women’s labor force attachment have the largest effect in shifting firms’ offers, and these effects would be enhanced by policies that improve women’s within-job development.
    Keywords: Gender wage gap, life-cycle, firm heterogeneity, human capital, job search
    JEL: J16 J24 J31 J64
    Date: 2020–03–02
  2. By: Christina Gravert (CEBI, Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen); Katrine Thornfeldt Sørensen (CEBI, Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: We investigate whether the gender gap in economic publications can be explained by different submission strategies of male and female economists. We conduct an online survey among early-career economics faculty of top 50 institutions focusing on the submission trajectories of job market papers as well as personal and institutional characteristics. Our results suggest that there are no significant differences in submission strategies for this early-career sample.
    Keywords: gender bias, economists, publications, survey
    JEL: D04 D83 D91 J16
    Date: 2020–08–03
  3. By: Wang, Feicheng; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Zhou, Minghai
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of import liberalization induced labor demand shocks on male and female employment in China. Combining data from population and firm census waves over the period of 1990 to 2005, we relate prefecture-level employment by gender to the exposure to tariff reductions on locally imported products. Our empirical results show that increasing import competition has kept more females in the workforce, reducing an otherwise growing gender employment gap. These dynamics were present both in the local economies as a whole and among formal private industrial firms. Examining channels through which tariff reductions differentially affected males and females, we find that trade induced competitive pressures contributed to a general expansion of female intensive industries, shifts in sectoral gender segregation, reductions in gender discrimination in the labor market, technological upgrading through computerization and general income growth.
    Keywords: Trade liberalization,Import competition,Gender employment gap,China
    JEL: F13 F14 F16 F66 J16
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Thomas Buser (University of Amsterdam); Muriel Niederle (Stanford University); Hessel Oosterbeek (University of Amsterdam)
    Abstract: We assess the predictive power of two measures of competitiveness for education and labor market outcomes using a large, representative survey panel. The first is incentivized and is an online adaptation of the laboratory-based Niederle-Vesterlund measure. The second is an unincentivized survey question eliciting general competitiveness on an 11-point scale. Both measures are strong and consistent predictors of income, occupation, completed level of education and field of study. The predictive power of the new unincentivized measure for these outcomes is robust to controlling for other traits, including risk attitudes, confidence and the Big Five personality traits. For most outcomes, the predictive power of competitiveness exceeds that of the other traits. Gender differences in competitiveness can explain 5-10 percent of the observed gender differences in education and labor market outcomes.
    Keywords: competitiveness, career decisions, validated survey measures
    JEL: C9 I20 J24 J16
    Date: 2020–08–11
  5. By: Andreas Gulyas; Sebastian Seitz; Sourav Sinha
    Abstract: We study the 2011 Austrian Pay Transparency Law, which requires firms above a size threshold to publish reports on the gender pay gap. We exploit variation across firm size and time, to study the effects of transparency on the gender wage gap and individual wages, using the universe of Austrian social security records. Our results show that the policy had no discernible effects on male and female wages, and therefore no significant effects on the gender wage gap. The effects are precisely estimated and we can rule out that the policy narrowed the gender wage gap by more than half a percentage point. We find no evidence for wage compression at the establishment level. The policy led to an increase in the retention rate of workers, which points towards higher job satisfaction due to pay transparency.
    Keywords: Pay Transparency, Gender Wage Gap
    JEL: J08 J31 J38 J78
    Date: 2020–07
  6. By: Di Tommaso, Maria Laura; Contini, Dalit; De Rosa, Dalila; Piazzalunga, Daniela (University of Turin)
    Abstract: We design an innovative teaching method that aims to narrow the Gender Gap in Mathematics (GGM) in primary school and we evaluate its impact in grade 3 in Italy. The teaching methodology consists of 15 hours of math laboratories, which focus on peer interaction, sharing of ideas, students’ engagement, problem solving, and problem posing. The causal effect is evaluated using a randomized controlled trial, conducted in the province of Torino, involving 50 third grade classes in 25 schools, and 1044 students. The treatment significantly improves math performance for girls (0.15 s.d.), with no impact on boys, contributing to reduce the gender gap in math by 39.5-46.2%. The results indicate that properly designed innovative methodologies have the potential to reduce the gender gap in math and call for further research on the role of teaching methodologies on math learning.
    Date: 2020–07

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