nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒07‒27
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Competition and Gender in the Lab vs Field: Experiments from off-grid Renewable Energy Entrepreneurs in Rural Rwanda By Rebecca A. Klege; Martine Visser
  2. The child penalty in Spain By Alicia de Quinto; Laura Hospido; Carlos Sanz
  3. Cross-Program Differences in Returns to Education and the Gender Earnings Gap By Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Andersen, Steffen; d’Astous, Philippe; H. Shore, Stephen
  4. The Gender Wage Gap on an Online Labour Market: The Cost of Interruptions By Adams, Abigail
  5. Gender of the manager and SMEs innovativeness By Alfonso Expósito; Amparo Sanchis-Llopis; Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis
  6. How the Covid-19 Lockdown Affected Gender Inequality in Paid and Unpaid Work in Spain By Lídia Farré; Yarine Fawaz; Libertad González; Jennifer Graves
  7. Discriminatory Lending: Evidence from Bankers in the Lab By Brock, Michelle; de Haas, Ralph
  8. Brothers vs. Sisters: The Effect of Siblings' Gender on an Individual's Labor Market Performance By Yuval Mazar; Uri Zilber

  1. By: Rebecca A. Klege; Martine Visser
    Abstract: We fill the gap by examining how gender attitudes and performance under competitive situations in the lab, reflects microenterprise outcomes in the renewable energy sector of Rwanda. — a country with progressive gender policies despite its traditional patriarchal set-up. We use the standard Niederle and Vesterlund (2007) experimental design in addition to a unique dataset from off-grid microenterprises, managed by entrepreneurs who have been working in mixed and single-sex teams since 2016. Our findings show that the gender composition of teams does not affect decisions to compete in the lab. Instead returns to education and risk-taking are more valuable to single-sex teams than for mixed gender teams. We also show that under competitive situations, women perform as well as men. Findings from the field strongly support findings in the lab that female-owned enterprises do not underperform in competitive settings, which corroborates the external validity of our lab results. Given that lab and field findings suggest no significant differentials in terms of competitiveness or performance of females, there exist ample scope to increase women involvement in the renewabe energy sector of Rwanda.
    Keywords: Competition, Gender differences, Entrepreneurs, Performance, renewable energy
    JEL: C91 C92 J16 Q49
    Date: 2020–01
  2. By: Alicia de Quinto (Banco de España); Laura Hospido (Banco de España); Carlos Sanz (Banco de España)
    Abstract: The role of parenthood in the gender pay gap has been extensively discussed in the literature. Using data from social security records, we adopt the methods used for other countries to evaluate the existence of a child penalty in Spain, looking at disparities for women and men across different labor outcomes following the birth of the first child. Our findings suggest that, the year after the first child is born, mothers’ annual earnings drop by 11 percent while men’s remain unaffected. The gender gap is even larger ten years after the birth. Our estimate of the long-run child penalty in earnings equals 28 percent, similar in magnitude to that found for Sweden and Denmark, and smaller than in the UK, the US, Germany, and Austria. In addition, we identify channels that may drive this phenomenon, including reductions in working days and shifts to part-time or fixed-term contracts. Finally, we encounter heterogeneous responses in earnings and labor market participation by educational level: college-educated women react to motherhood more on the intensive margin (working part-time), while non-college-educated women are relatively more likely to do so in the extensive margin (working fewer days).
    Keywords: gender, labor supply, employment, wage differentials, parenting, education
    JEL: I24 J13 J16 J21 J22 J31
    Date: 2020–07
  3. By: Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Andersen, Steffen; d’Astous, Philippe; H. Shore, Stephen
    Abstract: University programs differ in their gender earnings gaps, the difference between the subsequent earnings of the program’s male and female enrollees. A program could have a positive gender earnings gap because the program attracts higher-ability men than women (a selection effect), or because the program increases the earnings of male enrollees more than female enrollees (a causal effect). To understand the source of cross-program differences in gender earnings gaps, we exploit a discontinuity built into the Danish national university admissions system, which provides a quasi-random assignment of similar applicants to different programs. Enrolling in a program with a $1 larger gender earnings gap, holding average earnings constant, does not affect male earnings but reduces female earnings by $0.45. This effect is small as women enter the labor market but increase over time, and cannot be explained by channels related to marriage or childbirth. Our results show that programs that appear worse for women – in the sense of having economically significant gender earnings gaps – are worse for women because they reduce female earnings more than programs with smaller gaps.
    JEL: I23 I26 J24
    Date: 2020–06
  4. By: Adams, Abigail
    Abstract: This paper analyses gender differences in working patterns and wages on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Using information on 2 million tasks, I find no gender difference in task selection nor experience on the platform. Nonetheless, women earn 20% less per hour on average. Half of this gap is explained by differences in the scheduling of work; women have more fragmented work patterns with consequences for their task completion speed. A follow up survey shows that the wage gap is concentrated amongst women with young children, who also report that domestic responsibilities affect their ability to plan and complete work online.
    Keywords: Flexibility; Gender Difference; Gig economy; Multitasking; Telework
    JEL: J16 J24 J31
    Date: 2020–01
  5. By: Alfonso Expósito (University of Seville, Spain); Amparo Sanchis-Llopis (University of Valencia and ERICES, Spain); Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis (University of Valencia and ERICES, Spain)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the role of the manager’s gender on the propensity to introduce innovations using a sample of Spanish small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). We examine whether there are significant differences between female- and male-led businesses in terms of their propensity to innovate, and whether these differences may be explained by factors related to the attributes of the manager concerning risk tolerance, self-confidence, education level and cooperative behaviour. In particular, this study tests if the linkages between these managerial attributes and the propensity to innovate are moderated by the gender of the manager. Using a multivariate probit model (triprobit), we further investigate the role of gender on the managerial decision to simultaneously introduce product, process and organisational innovations. Our main results indicate that there are not significant gender differences in the propensity to introduce innovations between male- and female-run businesses when considering innovation at an aggregated level, that is, innovating in any of the three types of innovations considered. However, we obtain a higher propensity of male managers to introduce process innovations, as compared to their female counterparts. No significant differences by gender are found for product and organisational innovations. Additionally, results of the multivariate probit model indicate that the three innovation decisions are interdependent and should be jointly analysed. This study contributes to the scant literature regarding gender impact on firm’s innovativeness with novel empirical evidence for SMEs.
    Keywords: manager’s gender; SMEs; product innovation; process innovation; organizational innovations; triprobit model
    JEL: C35 J16 O30 M21
    Date: 2020–06
  6. By: Lídia Farré; Yarine Fawaz; Libertad González; Jennifer Graves
    Abstract: The covid-19 pandemic led many countries to close schools and declare lockdowns during the Spring of 2020, with important impacts on the labor market. We document the effects of the covid-19 lockdown in Spain, which was hit early and hard by the pandemic and suffered one of the strictest lockdowns in Europe. We collected rich household survey data in early May of 2020. We document large employment losses during the lockdown, especially in “quarantined” sectors and non-essential sectors that do not allow for remote work. Employment losses were mostly temporary, and hit lower-educated workers particularly hard. Women were slightly more likely to lose their job than men, and those who remained employed were more likely to work from home. The lockdown led to a large increase in childcare and housework, given the closing of schools and the inability to outsource. We find that men increased their participation in housework and childcare slightly, but most of the burden fell on women, who were already doing most of the housework before the lockdown. Overall, we find that the covid-19 crisis appears to have increased gender inequalities in both paid and unpaid work in the short-term.
    Keywords: COVID-19, gender roles, labor market, household work, childcare
    Date: 2020–07
  7. By: Brock, Michelle; de Haas, Ralph
    Abstract: We implement a lab-in-the-field experiment with 334 Turkish loan officers to test for the presence, and learn about the mechanisms, of gender discrimination in small business lending. Each officer reviews multiple real-life loan applications in which we randomize the applicant's gender. While provisional approval rates are the same for male and female applicants, we detect a more subtle form of discrimination. Loan officers are 30 percent more likely to make approval conditional on the presence of a guarantor when we present an application as coming from a female instead of a male entrepreneur. This discrimination is concentrated among young, inexperienced, and gender-biased loan officers. Discrimination is also most pronounced for loans that performed well in real life, making it costly to the bank.
    Keywords: banks; Gender Discrimination; guarantors; Implicit bias; lab-in-the-field
    JEL: D81 D83 D91 G21
    Date: 2020–01
  8. By: Yuval Mazar (Bank of Israel); Uri Zilber
    Abstract: This study examines—for the first time in Israel—the extent to which gender composition of siblings in the family influences their performance in the labor market. In particular, this work compares women with older brothers to women with older sisters, and men with older brothers to men with older sisters. The paper expands the conversation regarding the environment's influence on wages. Using data on non-ultra-Orthodox Jews born between 1975 and 1985, who were born last after two brothers or two sisters, we found that the gender of previous siblings has a statistically significant effect on wage only in certain population groups. Women of Ashkenazic descent who have two older sisters earn 7.0 percent more than women who have brothers, after controlling for other variables that may have an impact on wage. A similar effect was found for men from Ashkenazic descent. Most of the effect that we found for women was among those with high socioeconomic standing (women who live in localities in socioeconomic clusters 16–20), while for men, the effect was most prominent among those with lower and medium socioeconomic standing (those living in localities in socioeconomic clusters 1–15). We did not find robust results for women or men from Sephardic descent or mixed families.
    Date: 2019–12

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