nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒07‒13
ten papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender Differences in Negotiation: Evidence from Real Estate Transactions By Steffen Andersen; Julie Marx; Kasper Meisner Nielsen; Lise Vesterlund
  2. Males at the Tails: How Socioeconomic Status Shapes the Gender Gap By David Autor; David N. Figlio; Krzysztof Karbownik; Jeffrey Roth; Melanie Wasserman
  3. From Pink-Collar to Lab Coat: Cultural Persistence and Diffusion of Socialist Gender Norms By Friedman-Sokuler, Naomi; Senik, Claudia
  4. Things versus People: Gender Differences in Vocational Interests and in Occupational Preferences By Kuhn, Andreas; Wolter, Stefan C.
  5. Comparative Advantage and Gender Gap in STEM By Goulas, Sofoklis; Griselda, Silvia; Megalokonomou, Rigissa
  6. Workplace presenteeism, job substitutability and gender inequality By Azmat, Ghazala; Hensvik, Lena; Rosenqvist, Olof
  7. Race and gender income inequality in the USA: black women vs. white men By Kitov, Ivan
  8. Public Attention to Gender Equality and the Demand for Female Directors By Giannetti, Mariassunta; Wang, Tracy Yue
  9. Politics and Gender in the Executive Suite By Cohen, Alma; Hazan, Moshe; Weiss, David
  10. The Cost of Gendered Attitudes on a Female Candidate: Evidence from Google Trends By Raphael Corbi; Pedro Picchetti

  1. By: Steffen Andersen; Julie Marx; Kasper Meisner Nielsen; Lise Vesterlund
    Abstract: We investigate negotiations over real estate and find that men secure better prices than women when negotiating to buy and sell property. However, the gender difference declines substantially when improving controls for the property’s value; and is eliminated when controlling for unobserved heterogeneity in a sample of repeated sales. Rather than evidence of gender differences in negotiation, the initial difference in prices is evidence that men and women demand different properties. Consistently we find no gender difference in the sales price secured for property inherited from a deceased parent. Provided appropriate controls men and women fare equally well when negotiating over real estate. Our study demonstrates that inference on gender differences in negotiation relies critically on controlling for the value of the negotiated item.
    JEL: J16 R30
    Date: 2020–06
  2. By: David Autor; David N. Figlio; Krzysztof Karbownik; Jeffrey Roth; Melanie Wasserman
    Abstract: Analyzing Florida birth certificates matched to school records, we document that the female advantage in childhood behavioral and academic outcomes is driven by gender gaps at the extremes of the outcome distribution. Using unconditional quantile regression, we investigate whether family socioeconomic status (SES) differentially affects the lower tail outcomes of boys. We find that the differential effects of family SES on boys’ outcomes are concentrated in the parts of the distribution where the gender gaps are most pronounced. Accounting for the disproportionate effects of family environment on boys at the tails substantially narrows the gender gap in high school dropout.
    JEL: I24 J12 J13 J16
    Date: 2020–05
  3. By: Friedman-Sokuler, Naomi (Bar-Ilan University); Senik, Claudia (Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: The fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989 led to a massive migration wave from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) to Israel. We document the persistence and transmission of the Soviet unconventional gender norms, both vertically across generations of immigrants, and horizontally through neighborhood and school peer effects. Tracking the educational and occupational choices of a cohort of young Israeli women, we identify the persistence of two important features of the Soviet culture: the prioritization of science and technology, and the strong female attachment to paid-work. Women born in the FSU, who immigrated in infancy, are significantly more likely than natives and other immigrants to major in STEM in high school. In tertiary education, they remain over-represented in STEM, but also differ significantly from other women by their specific avoidance of study fields leading to "pink collar" jobs, such as education and social work. They also display a specific choice of work-life balance reflecting a greater commitment to paid-work. Finally, the choice patterns of native women shift towards STEM and away from traditional female study fields as the share of FSU immigrants in their lower-secondary school increases.
    Keywords: culture, gender norms, education, STEM, occupational choice, immigration, Soviet Union, Israel
    JEL: Z1 I21 J16 J24 P30
    Date: 2020–06
  4. By: Kuhn, Andreas (Swiss Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training); Wolter, Stefan C. (University of Bern)
    Abstract: Occupational choices remain strongly segregated by gender, for reasons not yet fully understood. In this paper, we use detailed information on the cognitive requirements in 130 distinct learnable occupations in the Swiss apprenticeship system to describe the broad job content in these occupations along the things-versus-people dimension. We first show that our occupational classification along this dimension closely aligns with actual job tasks, taken from an independent data source on employers' job advertisements. We then document that female apprentices tend to choose occupations that are oriented towards working with people, while male apprentices tend to favor occupations that involve working with things. In fact, our analysis suggests that this variable is by any statistical measure among the most important proximate predictors of occupational gender segregation. In a further step, we replicate this finding using individual-level data on both occupational aspirations and actual occupational choices for a sample of adolescents at the start of 8th grade and the end of 9th grade, respectively. Using these additional data, we finally also show that the gender difference in occupational preferences is largely independent of individual, parental, and regional controls.
    Keywords: occupational choice, occupational gender segregation, things versus people, preferences, gender differences, job content
    JEL: J16 J24 D91
    Date: 2020–06
  5. By: Goulas, Sofoklis (Stanford University); Griselda, Silvia (University of Melbourne); Megalokonomou, Rigissa (University of Queensland)
    Abstract: Why are females compared to males both more likely to have strong STEM-related performance and less likely to study STEM later on? We exploit random assignment of students to classrooms in Greece to identify the impact of comparative advantage in STEM relative to non-STEM subjects on STEM specialization decisions. We approximate comparative STEM advantage using the within-classroom ranking of the ratio of early-high school performance in STEM over non-STEM subjects. We find that females who are assigned to classroom peers among which they have a higher comparative STEM advantage are more likely to choose a STEM school track and apply to a STEM degree. Comparative STEM advantage appears irrelevant for males. Our results suggest that comparative STEM advantage explains at least 12% of the under-representation of qualified females in the earliest instance of STEM specialization. We discuss the mechanisms that amplify the role of comparative STEM advantage in STEM study.
    Keywords: gender gap, STEM, random peer effects, ordinal rank, absolute advantage, comparative advantage
    JEL: I21 I24 J24
    Date: 2020–06
  6. By: Azmat, Ghazala (Sciences Po); Hensvik, Lena (Uppsala University, Department of Economics); Rosenqvist, Olof (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy)
    Abstract: Following the arrival of the first child, women’s absence rates soar and become less predictable due to the greater frequency of their own sickness and the need to care for sick children. In this paper, we argue that this fall in presenteeism in the workplace hurts women’s wages, not only indirectly and gradually, through a slower accumulation of human capital, but also immediately, through a direct negative effect on productivity in unique jobs (i.e., jobs with low substitutability). Although both presenteeism and uniqueness are highly rewarded, we document that women’s likelihood of holding jobs with low substitutability decreases substantially relative to men’s after the arrival of the first child. This gap persists over time, with important long-run wage implications. We highlight that the parenthood wage penalty for women could be reduced by organizing work in such a way that more employees have tasks that, at least in the short run, can be performed satisfactorily by other employees in the workplace.
    Keywords: first child; presenteeism; couples; job substitutability; gender wage gap
    JEL: J16 J22
    Date: 2020–06–23
  7. By: Kitov, Ivan
    Abstract: Income inequality between different races in the U.S. is especially large. This difference is even larger when gender is involved. In a complementary study, we have developed a dynamic microeconomic model accurately describing the evolution of male and female incomes since 1930. Here, we extend our analysis and model the disparity between black and white population in the U.S., separately for males and females. Unfortunately, income microdata provided by the U.S. Census Bureau for other races and ethnic groups are not time compatible or too short for modelling purposes. We are forced to constrain our analysis to black and white population, but all principal results can be extrapolated to other races and ethnicities. Our analysis shows that black females and white males are two poles of the overall income inequality. The prediction of income distribution for two extreme cases with one model is the main challenge of this study.
    Keywords: personal income, evolution, age, race, GDP per capita, USA
    JEL: D01 D31 E17 E64 J1 O12
    Date: 2020–06–10
  8. By: Giannetti, Mariassunta; Wang, Tracy Yue
    Abstract: We explore whether demand factors contribute to low female board participation. We use time-varying public attention to gender equality as a shock that differentially affects the demand for female directors of firms with different ex ante culture towards gender equality. We find that public attention is associated with an increase in female board representation, especially in firms whose ex ante culture is more sympathetic to gender equality. Furthermore, public attention to gender equality changes the way female directors are recruited. First, the pool of female directors broadens without any obvious compromises on quality. Second, public attention to gender equality reduces the probability that connected men are appointed, leading to higher female board representation.
    Date: 2020–03
  9. By: Cohen, Alma; Hazan, Moshe; Weiss, David
    Abstract: We investigate whether CEOs' political preferences are associated with the prevalence and compensation of women among non-CEO top executives at U.S. public companies. We find that "Democratic" CEOs are associated with more women in the executive suite. To explore causality, we use an event study approach to show that replacing a Republican with a Democratic CEO increases female representation. Additionally, we discuss how the lack of an association between CEO political preferences and gender diversity in the boardroom influences our interpretation of these results. Finally, gender gaps in the level and performance-sensitivity of compensation diminish, or disappear, under Democratic CEOs.
    Keywords: CEO Politics; Executive Suite; Gender diversity
    JEL: G30 J16 J30 J33 J71 K00 M12 M14 M51 M52
    Date: 2020–03
  10. By: Raphael Corbi; Pedro Picchetti
    Abstract: How much can negative attitudes towards women affect voting for a female candidate on a major election? We measure gender animus by calculating a proxy based on Google search queries that include gender-charged language. Such approach likely elicits socially sensitive attitudes by limiting the concern of social censoring, circumventing usual difficulties associated with survey-based measurements. We compare the proxy to Hillary Clinton’s vote share in the presidential election of 2016, controlling for the vote share of the previous Democratic presidential candidate, Barack Obama. Our results indicate that a one standard deviation increase in our proxy is associated with a 2 percentage points relative loss for Hillary and suggest that online-based observable behavior can be useful for measuring different kinds of hard-to-measure social attitudes.
    Keywords: Gender; Discrimination; Election; Google
    JEL: D72 J16 J7
    Date: 2020–06–19

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