nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒05‒18
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender-Specific Personality Traits and Their Effects on the Gender Wage Gap: A Correlated Random Effects Approach using SOEP Data By Sina Otten
  2. Affirmative action programs and network benefits in the number of board positions By Burzynska, Katarzyna; Contreras, Gabriela
  3. Stereotypes in High-Stakes Decisions : Evidence from U.S. Circuit Courts By Ash, Elliott; Chen, Daniel L.; Ornaghi, Arianna
  4. A theory of the gender pay gap. Evidence from Colombia and the United States By Edgar Villa; Luz Karime Abadía; Ernesto A. Cárdenas; Luz Karime Abadía; Ernesto A. Cárdenas
  5. Gender Gaps and the Structure of Local Labor Markets By Petrongolo, Barbara; Ronchi, Maddalena
  6. Does Biology Drive Child Penalties? Evidence from Biological and Adoptive Families By Henrik Kleven; Camille Landais; Jakob Egholt Soegaard
  7. Pulling Effects in Migrant Entrepreneurship: Does Gender Matter? By Alessandra Colombelli; Elena Grinza; Valentina Meliciani; Mariacristina Rossi

  1. By: Sina Otten
    Abstract: Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), this article examines whether gender wage differentials occur due to differences in prototypical personality traits of women and men and provides the first application of a gender wage gap decomposition on the basis of a correlated random effects model. Main results show that agreeableness and openness are the most important personality traits in explaining wages and wage differentials. Openness has a positive effect and agreeableness has a negative effect on earnings for men, while the opposite effects are found for women. Concerning the gender wage gap, analyses show that although gender differences in openness and agreeableness explain small parts of the gap, gender differences in the returns of agreeableness and openness are larger.
    Keywords: Gender Wage Gap, Correlated Random Effects, SOEP, Big Five Personality Traits, Panel Data
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Burzynska, Katarzyna; Contreras, Gabriela (Radboud University)
    Abstract: Whereas governments are increasingly considering affirmative action programs to increase corporate board diversity, the effect of such programs can be superficial as they do not address the underlying problem, which is women's access to and inclusion in relevant corporate networks. To address this issue, we study the relationship among affirmative action programs (binding gender quotas and non-binding gender targets), director networks, and the number of board positions individual directors hold given their gender. We use personal, professional, and network characteristics of 25,127 unique directors from 2,435 public firms in 32 European countries over the period of 2000 through 2017. We find that in the absence of affirmative action programs, women directors benefit less from their networks than men directors suggesting the existence of a gender gap in network benefits. After the passage of binding gender quotas, this gender gap in network benefits narrows between women and men directors. Overall, this research suggests that binding gender quotas enhance the inclusion of women in corporate director networks and may help in leveling the playing field in the way these networks are used for achieving top management positions.
    Date: 2020–04–21
  3. By: Ash, Elliott (ETH Zurich); Chen, Daniel L. (Toulouse School of Economics); Ornaghi, Arianna (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: Stereotypes are thought to be an important determinant of decision making, but they are hard to systematically measure, especially for individuals in policy-making roles. In this paper, we propose and implement a novel language-based measure of gender stereotypes for the high-stakes context of U.S. Appellate Courts. We construct a judge-specific measure of gender- stereotyped language use – gender slant – by looking at the linguistic association of words identifying gender (male versus female) and words identifying gender stereotypes (career versus family) in the judge’s authored opinions. Exploiting quasi-random assignment of judges to cases and conditioning on detailed biographical characteristics of judges, we study how gen- der stereotypes influence judicial behavior. We find that judges with higher slant vote more conservatively on women’s rights’ issues (e.g. reproductive rights, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination). These more slanted judges also influence workplace outcomes for female colleagues: they are less likely to assign opinions to female judges, they are more likely to reverse lower-court decisions if the lower-court judge is a woman, and they cite fewer female authored opinions
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Edgar Villa; Luz Karime Abadía; Ernesto A. Cárdenas; Luz Karime Abadía; Ernesto A. Cárdenas
    Abstract: Abstract We construct a competitive model that explains the gender pay gap per hour by a statistical discrimination mechanism based on unobserved effort provided by men and women in accordance to an intrahousehold division of labor in which only women engage in child rearing activities. For unskilled labor an additional physical endowment effect arises and increases the pay gap against women. The model explains several empirical regularities in the literature of regression analysis. We show empirical evidence for Colombia and the United States that is consistent with the predictions of the model. Further, we study an equal parental leave and equal pay for equal work policies and find conditions for these policies to be effective at reducing the pay gap.
    Keywords: Gender Pay Gap, Statistical Discrimination, Self Selection, Equal pay for Equal work.
    JEL: J13 J16 J24 J71
    Date: 2020–05–01
  5. By: Petrongolo, Barbara (Queen Mary, University of London); Ronchi, Maddalena (Queen Mary, University of London)
    Abstract: In this paper we discuss some strands of the recent literature on the evolution of gender gaps and their driving forces. We will revisit key stylized facts about gender gaps in employment and wages in a few high-income countries. We then discuss and build on one gender-neutral force behind the rise in female employment, namely the rise of the service economy, which is also closely related to the polarization of female employment and to the geographic distribution of jobs, which is expected to be especially relevant for female employment prospects. We finally turn to currently debated causes of remaining gender gaps and discuss existing evidence on labor market consequences of women's heavier caring responsibilities in the household. In particular, we highlight how women's stronger distaste for commuting time may feed into gender pay gaps by making women more willing to trade o steeper wage gains for shorter commutes.
    Keywords: gender gaps, industry structure, local labor markets
    JEL: J16 J21 J31 J61
    Date: 2020–04
  6. By: Henrik Kleven (Princeton University, NBER, CEPR, and CEBI); Camille Landais (London School of Economics and CEPR); Jakob Egholt Soegaard (CEBI, Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: This paper investigates if the impact of children on the labor market trajectories of women relative to men child penalties can be explained by the biological links between mother and child. We estimate child penalties in biological and adoptive families using event studies around the arrival of children and almost forty years of adoption data from Denmark. Long-run child penalties in earnings and its underlying determinants are virtually identical in biological and adoptive families. This implies that biology is not important for child-related gender gaps. Based on additional analyses, we argue that our results speak against the importance of specialization based on comparative advantage more broadly.
    Keywords: Gender Wage Gap, Children, Adoption, Denmark
    JEL: D63 J13 J16 J22 J31 J71
    Date: 2020–05–04
  7. By: Alessandra Colombelli (DIGEP, Politecnico di Torino); Elena Grinza (LUISS University); Valentina Meliciani (Department of Management, University of Turin); Mariacristina Rossi (Collegio Carlo Alberto)
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine whether the existing stock of migrant firms induces more new firms of the same co-ethnic group in the same sector and province. We do so by analyzing the number of new firms created each year by country of origin, sector, and province, drawing on administrative data of the population of individual entrepreneurs observed over the period 2002-2013. We find support for a strong attractiveness (pulling) effect. We also find that this effect significantly differs by gender: female migrant entrepreneurs show lower reactiveness to the existing stock of firms compared to their male counterparts. We finally show that such gender differences are stronger for migrants coming from more gender-unequal countries. On the contrary, the degree of gender inequality in the region of destination does not matter.
    Keywords: Migrant entrepreneurship, pulling effect, gender differences, gender inequality, country of origin, region of destination
    JEL: L26 J15 J16
    Date: 2020–05

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