nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒05‒04
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Motherhood Employment Penalty and Gender Wage Gap Across Countries: 1990–2010 By Chu, Yu-Wei Luke; Cuffe, Harold E.; Doan, Nguyen
  2. Gender Differences in Professional Career Dynamics: New Evidence from a Global Law Firm By Ina Ganguli; Martina Viarengo; Ricardo Hausmann
  3. Time in Office and the Changing Gender Gap in Dishonesty: Evidence from Local Politics in India By Ananish Chaudhuri; Vegard Iversen; Francesca R. Jensenius; Pushkar Maitra
  4. Gender and Climate Action By Elert, Niklas; Lundin, Erik
  5. Effect of female elementary-school homeroom teachers on time preferences in adulthood By Yamamura, Eiji; Kang, Myong-Il; Ikeda, Shinsuke

  1. By: Chu, Yu-Wei Luke; Cuffe, Harold E.; Doan, Nguyen
    Abstract: In this paper, we use twin birth as an instrument to estimate the effects of fertility on female labor force participation using 70 censuses from 36 countries in 1990–2010. We document a strong relationship between the gender wage gap and the size of the motherhood penalty. The penalty is smallest in countries with small gender wage gaps. Both cross- and within-country relationships between motherhood penalty and gender wage gap remain strong and negative even when we condition on per-capita GDP and educational attainment. Our estimates suggest that a reduction of 1-percentage-point in the gender wage gap is associated with a decrease of 0.45–0.65 percentage-points in the estimated motherhood employment penalty.
    Keywords: Child penalty, female labor supply, family size, gender wage gap, twin birth
    JEL: J13 J16 J18 J22
    Date: 2020–04–24
  2. By: Ina Ganguli; Martina Viarengo; Ricardo Hausmann (Center for International Development at Harvard University)
    Abstract: We examine gender gaps in career dynamics in the legal sector using rich panel data from one of the largest global law firms in the world. The law firm studied is representative of multinational law firms and operates in 23 countries. The sample includes countries at different stages of development. We document the cross-country variation in gender gaps and how these gaps have changed over time. We show that while there is gender parity at the entry level in most countries by the end of the period examined, there are persistent raw gender gaps at the top of the organization across all countries. We observe significant heterogeneity among countries in terms of gender gaps in promotions and wages, but the gaps that exist appear to be declining over the period studied. We also observe that women are more likely to report exiting the firm for family and work-life balance reasons, while men report leaving for career advancement. Finally, we show that various measures of national institutions and culture appear to play a role in the differential labor-market outcomes of men and women.
    Keywords: gender gaps; human capital; job mobility; promotion; culture; legal sector
    JEL: I26 J16 J62 M51 Z
    Date: 2020–04
  3. By: Ananish Chaudhuri; Vegard Iversen; Francesca R. Jensenius; Pushkar Maitra
    Abstract: Increasing the share of women in politics is regularly promoted as a means of reducing corruption. In this paper, we look for evidence of a gender gap in dishonesty among elected representatives, as well as how this changes with time in office. Based on a sample of 356 inexperienced and experienced local politicians in West Bengal, India, we combine survey data on attitudes towards corruption with data from incentivized experiments. While we find little evidence of a gender gap in the attitudes of inexperienced politicians, a lower faith in political institutions and a greater distaste for corruption can be seen among experienced politicians, particularly women. However, this seeming hardening in attitudes among female politicians also coincides with more dishonest behavior in our experiments. Exploring mechanisms for this difference, we find it to be strongly associated with lower risk aversion. Our study indicates that gender gaps in politics should be theorized as dynamic and changing, rather than static.
    Keywords: politicians, gender, honesty, die-tossing game, experiments
    JEL: H11 C93
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Elert, Niklas (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Lundin, Erik (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: It is well-known that men and women differ in their views regarding the severity of climate change, but do they also differ in their support for climate policy and in undertaking climate action? Previous evidence on this question is inconsistent, but unique survey data from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency enable us to answer it in the affirmative. Swedish women worry more about climate change and perceive it to be a bigger threat than men do. Furthermore, women report a greater support than men for policies to mitigate climate change through political interventions, and also undertake more voluntary actions to achieve this goal. More generally, the results suggest that women and men differ in their willingness to alter behavior and support policy to help mitigate other large scale crises, such as global pandemics.
    Keywords: Climate change; Public opinion; Gender; Environmental beliefs
    JEL: H23 J16 O44 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2020–04–21
  5. By: Yamamura, Eiji; Kang, Myong-Il; Ikeda, Shinsuke
    Abstract: Using teacher–student random gender matching and hand-collected individual-level data, we examine how female teachers in elementary schools influence students’ time preferences in adulthood. Our major finding is that female teachers lead pupils to have lower time discount rates. Furthermore, this effect on male pupils is larger than on female pupils.
    Keywords: Time preference, Gender difference, Teacher–Student gender matches
    JEL: A22 A29 J16
    Date: 2020–04–10

This nep-gen issue is ©2020 by Jan Sauermann. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.