nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒04‒20
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Self-Citation, Cumulative Advantage, and Gender Inequality in Science By Pierre Azoulay; Freda B. Lynn
  2. Financial Inclusion in High-Income Countries: Gender Gap or Poverty Trap ? By Anastasia Cozarenco; Ariane Szafarz
  3. Heterogeneous Effects of Urban Public Transportation on Employment by Gender: Evidence from the Delhi Metro By Mai Seki; Eiji Yamada
  4. Gender and the beauty contest game By Qin, Botao
  5. Gender discriminatory taxes, fairness perception, and labor supply By Hundsdoerfer, Jochen; Matthaei, Eva Kristina

  1. By: Pierre Azoulay; Freda B. Lynn
    Abstract: In science, self-citation is often interpreted as an act of self-promotion that (artificially) boosts the visibility of one’s prior work in the short term, which could then inflate professional authority in the long term. Recently, in light of research on the gender gap in self-promotion, two, large-scale studies of publications examine if women self-cite less than men. But they arrive at conflicting conclusions; one concludes yes whereas the other, no. We join the debate with an original study of 36 cohorts of life scientists (1970–2005) followed through 2015 (or death or retirement). We track not only the rate of self-citation per unit of past productivity, but also the likelihood of self-citing intellectually distant material and the rate of return on self-citations with respect to a host of major career outcomes, including grants, future citations, and job changes. With comprehensive, longitudinal data, we find no evidence whatsoever of a gender gap in self-citation practices or returns. Men may very well be more aggressive self-promoters than women, but this dynamic does not manifest in our sample with respect to self-citation practices. Implications of our null findings are discussed, particularly with respect to gender inequality in scientific careers more broadly.
    JEL: I23 J16 O31
    Date: 2020–03
  2. By: Anastasia Cozarenco; Ariane Szafarz
    Abstract: Little is still known about the determinants of financial inclusion in high-income countries. Using the Findex dataset, we focus on two regions: The Euro area and North America. We detect important differences between the two regions in the financial inclusion of women and poor households. In the Euro area, access to financial services can be challenging for women, while in North America, poor households are particularly underserved. We explore potential explanatory factors for the gender and poverty gaps using public social expenditures, inequality and gender discrimination measures, and labor market characteristics. As expected, the region-wise poverty gaps in financial inclusion are aligned with inequality measures. Yet, the factors connected with gender gaps are less intuitive. Our preliminary analysis shows that the gender gaps in financial inclusion are related more to (un)employment characteristics than to the level of institutional gender discrimination. This evidence in turn suggests a link between financial inclusion and the need for consumption smoothing. We therefore speculate that, in high-income countries, gendered financial exclusion is driven more by demand-side factors than by supply-side ones.
    Keywords: Financial inclusion; High-Income Countries; Gender; Poverty; Euro Area; North America
    JEL: G21 O11 O15 J16 I32
    Date: 2020–04–03
  3. By: Mai Seki; Eiji Yamada
    Abstract: Abstract The Delhi Metro is one of the leading examples of a recent urban mass transit infrastructure project in a developing country where women have traditionally suffered from constrained mobility. In this paper, we analyze the effects of the Delhi Metro on the work participation rate of women and men, using a three-period (1991, 2001, and 2011) panel data of townshiplevel zones within the city of Delhi. While the data has limitations in understanding the characteristics of individual residents in detail, we employ a difference-in-differences estimation controlling for a location fixed-effect, with a parallel trend test. The results suggest that the proximity to the Delhi Metro stations significantly increases the female work participation rate (WPR), whereas its effect on the male WPR is ambiguous with the potential to have an opposite sign. While there are number of potential mechanisms that can deliver this result, we develop a theoretical urban commuting model and argue that a larger reduction in the commuting cost for females (by offering a safer commuting mode of transportation, for example) can generate the quantified patterns of the effects on the WPR. Overall, our results relate to the literature on the quantification of the contribution of urban transport infrastructure towards inclusive growth and poverty reduction.
    Keywords: India, gender gap, equilibrium commuting model
    Date: 2020–03
  4. By: Qin, Botao
    Abstract: This paper uses a beauty contest game to test the gender differences in strategic reasoning. Using both a non-monetary incentive treatment and a monetary incentives treatment in China, I find there are differences in strategic reasoning.However, the differences disappear with the increase of stakes.
    Keywords: Gender; Beauty Contest Game
    JEL: C72 C91 J16
    Date: 2019–12–06
  5. By: Hundsdoerfer, Jochen; Matthaei, Eva Kristina
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine the gender specific impact of discriminatory taxation on fairness perception and individual labor supply decisions. Using the controlled environment of an experimental laboratory, we manipulate both distributional as well as procedural justice of taxation between subjects. We violate distributional fairness through the random application of tax rates, while procedural justice is broken by levying discriminatory tax rates based on taxpayer gender. For both inequality in outcome as well as discrimination, we find strong differences in reactions between male and female participants. Male participants perceived gender discriminatory taxation as unfair in and of itself. Female participants perceived random taxation as well as gender discriminatory taxation to be unfair, as long as they ended up with the higher tax rate. The perceived fairness strongly drove (did not affect) male (female) participants' labor supply. Taken both subgroups together, while mere outcome inequality did not influence labor supply decisions significantly, we find evidence of a negative effect of gender-based discrimination on labor supply.
    Keywords: Tax,labor supply,distributional justice,procedural justice,discrimination
    Date: 2020

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