nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒04‒13
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. The Great Convergence? Gender and Unpaid Work in Europe and the United States By Ariane Pailhé; Anne Solaz; Maria Stanfors
  2. Still Separate in STEM? Trends in Sex Segregation by Field of Study in Japan, 1975-2019 By Uchikoshi, Fumiya; Mugiyama, Ryota; Oguro, Megumi
  3. Gender bias in the Erasmus students network By Luca De Benedictis; Silvia Leoni
  4. Culture and Gender Allocation of Tasks: Source Country Characteristics and the Division of Non-Market Work among US Immigrants By Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn; Matthew Comey; Amanda Eng; Pamela Meyerhofer; Alexander Willén
  5. The Impact of COVID-19 on Gender Equality By Titan Alon; Matthias Doepke; Jane Olmstead-Rumsey; Michèle Tertilt
  6. The Missing Men World War I and Female Labor Force Participation By Jörn Boehnke; Victor Gay

  1. By: Ariane Pailhé; Anne Solaz; Maria Stanfors
    Abstract: Over the past decades, men’s and women’s time use has changed dramatically suggesting a gender revolution across industrialized nations. Women increased their time in paid work and reduced time in unpaid activities. Men increased their time in unpaid work, but not enough to compensate. Thus, women still perform more unpaid work irrespective of context. We investigate developments regarding men’s and women’s unpaid work across Europe and the United States, using time diary data from the mid-1980s and onwards. We find evidence for gender convergence in unpaid work over time, but different trends for housework and childcare. Gender convergence in housework was primarily a result from women reducing their time, whereas childcare time increased for both genders only supporting convergence in contexts where men changed more than women. Decomposition analyses show that trends in housework and childcare are generally explained by changes in behaviour rather than compositional changes in population characteristics.
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Uchikoshi, Fumiya; Mugiyama, Ryota; Oguro, Megumi
    Abstract: There is much evidence to suggest that the gender wage gap in Japan is one of the highest in rich countries, while gender inequality in education at the vertical level is becoming increasingly equalized. A small number of studies suggest that the remaining gender gap can be attributed to horizontal segregation with respect to field of study, particularly female underrepresentation in STEM fields, and little is known about trends in sex segregation by field in Japan specifically. By using publicly available education statistics, the current study investigates these trends from 1975 through 2019. We paid particular attention to (1) different trends in non-STEM, STEM, and health fields, and (2) heterogeneity across national, public, and private institutions. The results of applying Duncan's dissimilarity index to 68 fields of study among four-year university students reveal that the overall trend in sex segregation in field of study has decreased over the 45 years by 43%. We also found that trends differ based on both institutional characteristics of universities and academic field, as the declining segregation trend is mainly driven by the massive integration of men and women in non-STEM fields in private institutions. The declining trend in segregation has been slow in recent years, especially at national and public institutions. We explored potential mechanisms for these stalling trends, and suggest that the driving forces are (1) a slower integration of women in STEM fields and (2) a rise in segregation in health fields. These results provide support for the theory of a stalled gender revolution in Japan. This study concludes that the desegregation may not be linked to the gender equality in the labor market, and that horizontal segregation may even increase because of the growing demand for the workforce to deal with population aging in the future.
    Date: 2020–03
  3. By: Luca De Benedictis; Silvia Leoni
    Abstract: The Erasmus Program (EuRopean community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students), the most important student exchange program in the world, financed by the European Union and started in 1987, is characterized by a strong gender bias. Girls participate to the program more than boys. This work quantifies the gender bias in the Erasmus program between 2008 and 2013, using novel data at the university level. It describes the structure of the program in great details, carrying out the analysis across fields of study, and identifies key universities as senders and receivers. In addition, it tests the difference in the degree distribution of the Erasmus network along time and between genders, giving evidence of a greater density in the female Erasmus network with respect to the one of the male Erasmus network.
    Date: 2020–03
  4. By: Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn; Matthew Comey; Amanda Eng; Pamela Meyerhofer; Alexander Willén
    Abstract: There is a well-known gender difference in time allocation within the household, which has important implications for gender differences in labor market outcomes. We ask how malleable this gender difference in time allocation is to culture. In particular, we ask if US immigrants allocate tasks differently depending upon the characteristics of the source countries from which they emigrated. Using data from the 2003-2017 waves of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), we find that first-generation immigrants, both women and men, from source countries with more gender equality (as measured by the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Index) allocate tasks more equally, while those from less gender equal source countries allocate tasks more traditionally. These results are robust to controls for immigration cohort, years since migration, and other own and spouse characteristics. There is also some indication of an effect of parent source country gender equality for second-generation immigrants, particularly for second-generation men with children. Our findings suggest that broader cultural factors do influence the gender division of labor in the household.
    Keywords: Housework, childcare, gender, immigration, time allocation
    JEL: J13 J15 J16 J22
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Titan Alon; Matthias Doepke; Jane Olmstead-Rumsey; Michèle Tertilt
    Abstract: The economic downturn caused by the current COVID-19 outbreak has substantial implications for gender equality, both during the downturn and the subsequent recovery. Compared to ``regular'' recessions, which affect men's employment more severely than women's employment, the employment drop related to social distancing measures has a large impact on sectors with high female employment shares. In addition, closures of schools and daycare centers have massively increased child care needs, which has a particularly large impact on working mothers. The effects of the crisis on working mothers are likely to be persistent, due to high returns to experience in the labor market. Beyond the immediate crisis, there are opposing forces which may ultimately promote gender equality in the labor market. First, businesses are rapidly adopting flexible work arrangements, which are likely to persist. Second, there are also many fathers who now have to take primary responsibility for child care, which may erode social norms that currently lead to a lopsided distribution of the division of labor in house work and child care.
    Keywords: Covid-19, Division of Labor, Business Cycle, Gender Equality
    JEL: D13 J16 O10
    Date: 2020–03
  6. By: Jörn Boehnke (UC Davis - University of California [Davis] - University of California); Victor Gay (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, IAST - Institute for Advanced Study in Toulouse)
    Abstract: Using spatial variation in World War I military fatalities in France, we show that the scarcity of men due to the war generated an upward shift in female labor force participation that persisted throughout the interwar period. Available data suggest that increased female labor supply accounts for this result. In particular, deteriorated marriage market conditions for single women and negative income shocks to war widows induced many of these women to enter the labor force after the war. In contrast, demand factors such as substitution toward female labor to compensate for the scarcity of male labor were of second-order importance.
    Keywords: Economics,Female labor force participation,Sex ratio,Marriage market,World War I,Economic history
    Date: 2020–01

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