nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒03‒09
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Equality of the Sexes and Gender Differences in Competition: Evidence from Three Traditional Societies By Klonner, Stefan; Pal, Sumantra; Schwieren, Christiane
  2. Gender Gaps in Education: The Long View By David K. Evans; Maryam Akmal; Pamela Jakiela
  3. Gender gap in voting: Evidence from actual ballots By Köppl-Turyna, Monika
  4. Gender-specific differences in geographical mobility: Evidence from Ghana By Orkoh, Emmanuel; Stolzenburg, Victor
  5. Organized crime and women in politics: Evidence from a quasi-experiment in southern Italy By Baraldi, Anna Laura; Ronza, Carla
  6. A Field Experiment on the Role of Socioemotional Skills and Gender for Hiring in Turkey By Nas Ozen,Selin Efsan; Hut,Stefan; Levin,Victoria; Munoz Boudet,Ana Maria

  1. By: Klonner, Stefan; Pal, Sumantra; Schwieren, Christiane
    Abstract: Can gender-balanced social norms mitigate the gender differences in competitiveness that are observed in traditional patriarchic as well as in modern societies? We experimentally assess men's and women's preferences to compete in a traditional society where women and men have similar rights and entitlements alongside a patriarchic and a matrilineal society which have previously been studied. We find that, unlike in the patriarchic society, there is no significant gender difference in the inclination to compete in the gender-balanced society. We also find that women's decisions in our experiment are optimal more often than men's in the gender-balanced society - opposite to the pattern encountered in the patriarchic society. Our results highlight the importance of culture and socialization for gender differences in competitiveness and suggest that the large gender-differences in competitiveness documented for modern societies are a long-term consequence of a patriarchic heritage.
    Keywords: gender economics; competition; social norms; traditional societies; lab-in-the-field experiment
    Date: 2020–02–26
  2. By: David K. Evans (Center for Global Development); Maryam Akmal (Center for Global Development); Pamela Jakiela (Center for Global Development; BREAD; IZA)
    Abstract: Many countries remain far from achieving gender equality in the classroom. Using data from 126 countries between 1960 and 2010, we document four facts. First, women are more educated today than fifty years ago in every country in the world. Second, they remain less educated than men in the vast majority of countries. Third, in many countries with low levels of education for both men and women in 1960, gender gaps widened as more boys went to school, then narrowed as girls enrolled; thus, gender gaps got worse before they got better. Fourth, gender gaps rarely persist in countries where boys are attaining high levels of education. Most countries with large, current gender gaps have low levels of male educational attainment. Many also perform poorly on other measures of development such as life expectancy and GDP per capita. Improving girls’ education is an important goal in its own right, but closing gender gaps in education will not be sufficient to close critical gaps in adult life outcomes. The order of author names was randomly assigned using the American Economic Association’s author randomization tool.
    Keywords: education, inequality, gender, economic development
    JEL: I21 I24 J16 O1
    Date: 2020–01–07
  3. By: Köppl-Turyna, Monika
    Abstract: This short article looks at the development of an electoral gender gap over time, using, for the first time, actual ballot data collected in the Austrian state of Vienna. Vienna recorded female and male ballots separately in the years from 1954 to 1991. Firstly, using this unique design, we conclude that the traditional gender gap (males more left-leaning) existed up to 1969 and then changed into the modern gender gap (females more left-leaning), from that date. These results confirm the considerable literature based on survey data. Secondly, we can confirm surveybased findings that male voters support more extreme positions than female voters. Thirdly, and contrary to expectations, we do not observe large systematic differences in turnout.
    Keywords: electoral gender gap,ballots,Vienna,turnover
    JEL: D72
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Orkoh, Emmanuel; Stolzenburg, Victor
    Abstract: The gains from trade depend on the reallocation of resources, including labour, across firms and sectors. However, workers are unlikely to be fully mobile since there are barriers to sectoral and geographical mobility due to social reasons such as family or existing private and professional networks. If these barriers depend on specific characteristics of workers, such as education, gender or race, this has important implications for inequality. In this note we examine gender-specific differences regarding geographical mobility in Ghana. Using survey data from the 2017 Ghana Living Standard Survey, we find that while men and women are equally likely to migrate, men are much more likely to move for economic reasons. Women on the other hand move predominantly for social reasons such as marriage. This is supported by both indicated reasons for migration and indirect evidence. For instance, men are more likely to be employed, send higher and more frequently remittances, and target regions that offer better employment prospects. These stylized facts suggest that Ghanaian men can more easily adjust to trade shocks than Ghanaian women. While we cannot infer from this evidence what determines the differences in geographical mobility between men and women, we can infer that men are more likely to benefit from a trade-induced expansion of exporting sectors and firms and are less likely to be hurt by a tradeinduced contraction of import-competing sectors and firms.
    Keywords: gender inequality,mobility,gains from trade
    JEL: J16 J61
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Baraldi, Anna Laura; Ronza, Carla
    Abstract: This paper provides new and unexplored evidence of a negative link between an increasing female participation in politics and the infiltration of organized crime in government. We perform an empirical analysis of about 1,700 Southern Italian municipalities between 1985 and 2013 exploiting two Italian laws: law no. 164/1991, which allows measure of mafia infiltration in the Italian municipalities, and law no. 81/1993, which creates an exogenous source of variation in the share of women on the council that allows for correction of endogeneity bias. Increasing the female proportion on the city council of 10 percentage points reduces the probability of dissolution for mafia infiltration of about 1.8 p.p.; the result is confirmed when considering a female mayor. This negative effect remains across several robustness checks. This research adds a further reason in favour of the reduction of the gender gap in politics. In fact, policies aimed at legitimizing democracy, such as gender quotas in electoral law, also have the effect of strengthening institutions in the fight against organized crime, which is always a key government agenda.
    Keywords: organized crime, gender gap, quasi-experiments, panel probit model
    JEL: D72 D78 J16 K42
    Date: 2019–12–01
  6. By: Nas Ozen,Selin Efsan; Hut,Stefan; Levin,Victoria; Munoz Boudet,Ana Maria
    Abstract: A vast literature shows the importance of socioemotional skills in earnings and employment, but whether they matter in getting hired remains unanswered. This study seeks to address this question and further investigates whether socioemotional skill signals in job applicants'resumes have the same value for male and female candidates. In a large-scale randomized audit study, an online job portal in Turkey is used to send fictitious resumes to real job openings, collecting a unique data set that enables investigating different stages of candidate screening. The study finds that socioemotional skills appear to be valued only when an employer specifically asks for such skills in the vacancy ad. When not asked for, however, candidates can face a penalty in the form of lower callback rates. A significant penalty is only observed for women, not for men. The study does not find evidence of other gender differences in the hiring process.
    Date: 2020–02–18

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