nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒03‒02
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender and Willingness to Compete for High Stakes By Dennie van Dolder; Martijn van Assem; Thomas Buser
  2. Increasing female education, stagnating female labor force participation, and gains from marriage: The case of rural Bangladesh By Tomomi Tanakam; Kazushi Takahashi; Keijiro Otsuka
  3. The gender pay gap revisited: Does machine learning offer new insights? By Brieland, Stephanie; Töpfer, Marina
  4. Gender Differences in Time Use : Allocating Time between the Market and the Household By Rubiano Matulevich,Eliana Carolina; Viollaz,Mariana
  5. Can child allowances improve fertility in a gender discrimination economy? By Ruiting Wang
  6. Personality Traits, Job Search and the Gender Wage Gap By Christopher Flinn; Petra Todd; Weilong Zhang
  7. Does political pressure on ‘gender’ engender danger for scientific research? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial By Tunde Lenard; Daniel Horn; Hubert János Kiss

  1. By: Dennie van Dolder (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam); Martijn van Assem (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam); Thomas Buser (University of Amsterdam)
    Abstract: We examine gender differences in competitiveness, using a TV game show where the winner of an elimination competition plays a game of chance worth hundreds of thousands of euros. At several stages of the competition, contestants face a choice between continuing to compete and opting out in exchange for a comparatively modest prize. When strategic considerations are absent, we observe the well-known pattern that women are less likely to compete than men, but this difference derives entirely from women avoiding competition against men. When the decision to compete is strategic and contestants should factor in the competitiveness of others, women again avoid competing against men. Men, in turn, seem to anticipate the lower competitiveness of female opponents, as evidenced by their greater tendency to compete against women. Ability differences are unlikely to explain these results. The findings underline the importance of the gender of competitors for the analysis of differences in willingness to compete, and shed new light on the persistent gender gap at the male-dominated higher rungs of the career ladder.
    Keywords: gender differences, competitiveness, willingness to compete, game show
    JEL: J16 D91
    Date: 2020–02–17
  2. By: Tomomi Tanakam (World Bank); Kazushi Takahashi (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo, Japan); Keijiro Otsuka (Kobe University)
    Abstract: Despite progress toward gender equality in education in Bangladesh, its female labor force participation (FLFP) rate has been stagnant relative to that of men, especially in marginal rural areas. To identify the overall benefit of schooling investment in women in rural Bangladesh, we examine the impact of female educational attainment on not only FLFP but also gains from marriage and household welfare. Applying a fuzzy regression discontinuity design where plausibly exogenous variation in school enrollment is created by the nationwide stipend program for women, we find moderate impacts of female education on FLFP, while it has positive and significant effects on the husband’s schooling and household income, particularly from non-farm activities. The results also show the significantly positive impacts of women's education on sanitation control and children's health. These findings indicate that female schooling enhances women's role and well-being through marriage and household activities rather than their labor market activities.
    Date: 2020–02
  3. By: Brieland, Stephanie; Töpfer, Marina
    Abstract: This paper analyses gender differences in pay at the mean as well as along the wage distribution. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we estimate the adjusted gender pay gap applying a machine learning method (post-double-LASSO procedure). Comparing results from this method to conventional models in the literature, we find that the size of the adjusted pay gap differs substantially depending on the approach used. The main reason is that the machine learning approach selects numerous interactions and second-order polynomials as well as different sets of covariates at various points of the wage distribution. This insight suggests that more exible specifications are needed to estimate gender differences in pay more appropriately. We further show that estimates of all models are robust to remaining selection on unobservables.
    Keywords: Gender pay gap,Machine Learning,Selection on unobservables
    JEL: J7 J16 J31
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Rubiano Matulevich,Eliana Carolina; Viollaz,Mariana
    Abstract: Important progress toward gender equality has been made in the past decades, but inequalities linked to gender norms, stereotypes, and the unequal distribution of housework and childcare responsibilities persist. Lifetime events such as marriage and parenthood bring substantial changes in time use among women and men. This paper updates and reinforces the findings of previous studies by analyzing gender differences in the allocation of time among market work and unpaid domestic work. Results from the analysis of time use patterns in 19 countries of different income levels and from various regions suggest that women specialize in unpaid domestic and care work and men specialize in market work. The paper employs propensity score matching to assess the marriage and parenthood"penalty"on time use patterns over the lifecycle. The findings indicate that women of prime working age are the most penalized on a host of measures, including labor market participation, unpaid domestic work, and leisure time. Men are not necessarily penalized for, and sometimes benefit from, marriage or parenthood.
    Keywords: Gender and Development,Inequality,Wages, Compensation&Benefits,Rural Labor Markets,Labor Markets,Educational Sciences
    Date: 2019–08–14
  5. By: Ruiting Wang (Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University)
    Abstract: This paper presents the e ects of child allowances on fertility, female labor supply, and economic growth in a gender wage discrimination economy. Child allowances cannot increase fertility in a higher gender discrimination economy. Both theoretical and empirical analyses prove this result. We find that child allowances can increase maternal childcare time. However, the expenditures on market childcare goods and services cannot increase with the decrease of female labor supply and total household income in a higher gender discrimination economy. When both the childcare time and market childcare goods and services are necessary inputs in the parental child care, an increase in child allowances can decrease fertility and per capita output. Moreover, in both the labor market and household, gender equality is critical for encouraging children-bearing. Child allowances can also increase fertility when males actively participate in child care.
    Keywords: Child allowances, Gender Wage Discrimination, Female Time Allocation, Fertility, Economic Growth
    JEL: E62 H31
    Date: 2020–02
  6. By: Christopher Flinn (New York University); Petra Todd (University of Pennsylvania); Weilong Zhang (University of Cambridge)
    Abstract: This paper introduces the Big Five personality traits along with other covariates in a job search, matching and bargaining model and investigates how education and personality traits affect job search behavior and labor market outcomes. It develops and estimates a partial equilibrium search model in which personality traits can influence worker productivity, job offer arrival rates, job dissolution rates and the division of surplus from an employer-employee match. The estimation is based on the IZA Evaluation Dataset, a panel dataset on newly-unemployed individuals in Germany between 2007 and 2008. Model specification tests provide support for a model that allows job search parameters to be heterogeneous across individuals, varying with levels of education, birth cohort, personality traits and gender. We use the estimated model to decompose the sources of the gender wage gap. The results show that the gap arises largely because women's personality traits are valued differently than men's. Of the Big Five traits, conscientiousness and agreeableness emerge as the most important in explaining the gender wage gap.
    Keywords: Big Five personality traits, personality traits, birth cohort
    JEL: J64 J00 E24 J31
    Date: 2020–02
  7. By: Tunde Lenard (Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies); Daniel Horn (Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies and Eötvös Loránd University); Hubert János Kiss (Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies and Eötvös Loránd University)
    Abstract: We detect a significant negative effect of mentioning ‘gender’ as a research topic on conducting academic research in Hungary. Using a randomized information treatment involving a comprehensive sample of Hungarian educationproviders we find that they are less willing to cooperate in a gender related future research compared to a research without this specification. Our results also indicate that this negative sentiment is clearly against gender and not against any topic covering social inequalities in general.
    Keywords: Randomized experiment, Gender, Information treatment
    JEL: C90 C93 H39 I28 J16
    Date: 2020–01

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