nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒02‒10
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender pay gap: a route from the North to the South of Italy By Maria Elena Filippin
  2. Raising the Bar: Causal evidence on gender differences in risk-taking from a natural experiment By René Böheim; Mario Lackner; Wilhelm Wagner
  3. Locus of Control and Female Labor Force Participation By Juliane Hennecke
  4. Gender, Credit, and Firm Outcomes By Manthos D. Delis; Iftekhar Hasan; Maria Iosifidi; Steven Ongena
  5. Gender Promotion Gaps: Career Aspirations and Workplace Discrimination By Ghazala Azmat; Vicente Cunãt; Emeric Henry
  6. Peer Effects in Academic Research: Senders and Receivers By Clément Bosquet; Pierre-Philippe Combes; Emeric Henry; Thierry Mayer
  7. Gender Quotas in Development Programming: Null Results from a Field Experiment in Congo By van der Windt, Peter Cornelis; Humphreys, Macartan; de la Sierra, Raul Sanchez

  1. By: Maria Elena Filippin (University of Pavia)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the gender pay gap across different regions in Italy, using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. We expect regional heterogeneity, both in terms of the gender pay gap and in its determinants. Our results show that, on a regional basis, the retribution gap widely varies, as its percentages of the explained and unexplained parts. Workers’ observable characteristics, related to both labor and personal features, that justify the explained part at a national level are confirmed by the regional data. Furthermore, data on the activity rate show that both at a national and regional level, female participation to the labor market, although it has been improving in recent years, is still profoundly lower than the male one. Therefore, we implement the Heckman correction, which reveals that women’s model coefficients are overestimated, at a national level and in half of the Italian regions. This result suggests that, although female participation in the labor market is lower than the male one, the fewer women participating in the labor market, on average, have higher productivity than men.
    Keywords: Gender Pay Gap, Oaxaca-Blinder, Italian regions
    JEL: J16 J21 J31 O15 R1
    Date: 2019–12
  2. By: René Böheim; Mario Lackner; Wilhelm Wagner
    Abstract: We analyze data from top-tier professional athletes and find that female and male athletes differ in the timing and in the extent of their reactions to a change of the rules which increased the risk of failure. Male athletes increased risk-taking in the more risky environment immediately after the changes. Female athletes, however, increased risk-taking two years after the rule change. Over time, female athletes reverted to pre-reform risk-taking levels and male athletes' continued to make more risky decisions in the new environment. We attribute our findings to gender differences in competitiveness and risk preferences.
    Keywords: Competitiveness, risk-taking, gender di erences
    JEL: J16 J44
    Date: 2020–01
  3. By: Juliane Hennecke (NZ Work Research Institute, Auckland University of Technology)
    Abstract: Research on female labor force participation has a long tradition in economic research. While many open questions have been answered on the gender gap in labor participation, the prevalent heterogeneity between women still keeps economists busy. While traditional economic theory attributed unexplained differences in decison-making to idiosyncratic shocks, modern empirical approaches are more and more intersted in investigating this psychological black box behind participation decisions. This paper contributes to the research by discussing the role of the presonality trait locus of control (LOC), a measure of an individual's belief about the causal relationship between behavior and live outcomes, for for differences in participation probabilities between women. In line with the existing literature, an important role of LOC for independence preferences as well as subjective beliefs about returns to investments are proposed. The connection between LOC and participation decisions is tested using German survey data, finding that internal women are on average more likely to be available for market production and this higher availability aso translates into higher employment probabilities. Addisitonal analyses identify a strong heterogeneity of the relationship with respect to underlying monetary constraints and social working norms.
    Keywords: locus of control, labor supply, female labor force participation, social norms, personality, preferences
    JEL: D91 D13 J21 J22 J16
    Date: 2019–12
  4. By: Manthos D. Delis (Montpellier Business School); Iftekhar Hasan (Fordham University - Gabelli School of Business; Bank of Finland); Maria Iosifidi (University of Surrey - Surrey Business School); Steven Ongena (University of Zurich - Department of Banking and Finance; Swiss Finance Institute; KU Leuven; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR))
    Abstract: Small and micro enterprises are usually majority owned by entrepreneurs. Using a unique sample of loan applications from such firms, we study the role of owners’ gender in the credit decision of banks and the post-credit decision firm outcomes. We find that, ceteris paribus, female entrepreneurs are more prudent loan applicants, with both the probabilities to apply for credit and of firm default after the loan origination being smaller. However, the relatively more aggressive behavior of male applicants pays off in terms of higher average firm performance after the loan origination.
    Keywords: Gender, Loan applications, Bank’s credit decision, Firm profitability and default
    JEL: G21 G32 J16
    Date: 2019–10
  5. By: Ghazala Azmat (Département d'économie); Vicente Cunãt (London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE)); Emeric Henry (Département d'économie)
    Abstract: Using a nationally representative longitudinal survey of lawyers in the U.S., we document a sizeable gap between men and women in their early aspirations to become law firm partners, despite similar early investments and educational characteristics. This aspiration gap can explain a large part of the gender promotion gap that is observed later. We propose a model to understand the role of aspirations and then empirically test its predictions. We show that aspirations create incentives to exert effort and are correlated with expectations of success and the preference for becoming a partner. We further show that aspirations are affected by early work experiences—facing harassment or demeaning comments early in the career affects long-term promotion outcomes mediated via aspirations. Our research highlights the importance of accounting for, and managing, career aspirations as an early intervention to close gender career gaps.
    Date: 2020–01
  6. By: Clément Bosquet (Spatial Economic Research Center); Pierre-Philippe Combes (Département d'économie); Emeric Henry (Département d'économie); Thierry Mayer (Département d'économie)
    Abstract: Using an instrument based on a national contest in France determining researchers’ location, we find evidence of peer effects in academia, when focusing on precise groups of senders (producing the spillovers) and receivers (benefiting from the spillovers), defined based on field of specialisation, gender and age. These peer effects are shown to exist even outside formal co-authorship relationships. Furthermore, the match between the characteristics of senders and receivers plays a critical role. In particular, men benefit a lot from peer effects provided by men, while all other types of gender combinations produce spillovers twice as small.
    Keywords: Economics of Science; Peer Effects; Research Productivity; Gender Publication Gap
    JEL: I23 J16 J24
    Date: 2019–11
  7. By: van der Windt, Peter Cornelis; Humphreys, Macartan; de la Sierra, Raul Sanchez
    Abstract: We examine whether gender quotas introduced by development agencies empower women. As part of a development program, an international organization created community management committees in 661 villages to oversee village level program expenditures. In a randomly selected half of these villages the organization required the committees to have gender parity. Using data on project choice from all participating villages, data on decision making in a later development project (105 villages), and data on citizen attitudes (200 villages), we find no evidence that gender parity requirements empower women. We discuss potential reasons for the null result, including weakness of these social interventions in terms of the engagement they generate, their time horizon, and the weak delegation of responsibilities.
    Date: 2020–01–14

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