nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒01‒27
three papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. An Analysis of Women’s Participation in Agriculture in Bihar By Singh, K.M.; Kumari, Priyanka; Ahmad, Nasim
  2. Is Monetary Policy Gender Neutral? Evidence from the Stock Market By Caterina Forti Grazzini; Chi Hyun Kim
  3. Month of birth and academic performance: differences by gender and educational stage By Pilar Beneito; Pedro Javier Soria-Espín

  1. By: Singh, K.M.; Kumari, Priyanka; Ahmad, Nasim
    Abstract: Understanding the nature of rural landscape change during the urbanization process is vital to formulate rural management plans for sustainable development. However, there is little information on how rural landscapes changes and limited evidence as to how it can be improved. There were 244.9 million households in India of which 179.7 million households or 833 million people were in rural areas (SECC Survey 2011). Survey revealed that 87.2 million rural households reported one of more criteria of deprivation, while 92 million households were engaged in casual manual labour and agricultural activities. In agriculture, the role of women cannot be denied. They contribute in every operation of agricultural activities and are also active in allied sectors like cattle management, dairying, beekeeping, goat rearing mushroom production and poultry farming etc. Women participation in total workforce was assessed 27.44% as against 72.56% by male workforce in 2011. Share of women agricultural workforce in total workforce was computed to be 16.57% in 2001 which declined to 6.23% in 2011. Causes of decline may be their participation other sectors with improvement in their literacy rate which rose to 51.50% in 2011 as compared to 33.57% in 2001. The male-female sex ratio has registered a decline of 0.11% as compared to 2001 census. Women holding land account for only 13.31% as against 87.27% by men in Bihar. Share of women agricultural workforce in total agricultural workforce was estimated to be 19.32% as per census 2011. Analysis of CACP unit level data of Bihar for the year 2013-14, revealed that the contribution of women in agricultural activities was assessed to be 35.94%. Women’s contribution in agriculture is significant and plays diverse role, still their wages were found 7.04% less than their male counterparts during 2015-16. To strengthen women’s participation in agriculture and allied sectors and to improve their access to land, loan and other facilities, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has policy provisions like joint leasing for both domestic and agricultural land under National policy for farmers. Under credit facility provisions government has framed policy for issuing Kisan Credit Cards to women for creating livelihood through livestock practices and agricultural processing. Beside all efforts, there is still a wide gender gap in the state which may be addressed properly for overall development of women and enhancing the rural landscape of the state in particular and nation in general. The paper tries to analyze the role women in agricultural development of Bihar and the issues confronting them.
    Keywords: Women in agriculture, Gender studies, Agricultural performance, Wage rates disparities
    JEL: J00 J3 J50 J70 Q1
    Date: 2019–10
  2. By: Caterina Forti Grazzini; Chi Hyun Kim
    Abstract: We use US household survey data from 2001-2017 to investigate whether monetary policy has heterogeneous effects on women's and men's financial portfolio decisions by analyzing their equity investment. On the one hand, monetary policy significantly affects the entry decisions of women, but not of men: after a contractionary shock, the probability of women entering the stock market decreases. On the other hand, monetary policy is gender-neutral for stock market participants: there are no significant differences in exit or in portfolio rebalancing decisions between women and men. Our results suggest that monetary policy does not have a heterogeneous effect on portfolio decisions across genders once women participate in the stock market.
    Keywords: Monetary policy, gender, stock market participation, portfolio choices
    JEL: E58 J16 G11
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Pilar Beneito (University of Valencia. ERI-CES); Pedro Javier Soria-Espín (Paris School of Economics (PSE))
    Abstract: The month in which you were born can have a significant impact in your academic life. It is well documented that people who are born in the first months of the academic year tend to have better educational achievement than their younger peers within the same cohort. However, there is little literature addressing this relationship looking at differences by gender and educational stage. In this paper we fill this gap by studying the effect of the month of birth on academic performance of students at the University of Valencia (Spain). Using a Regression Discontinuity (RD) design we create a cut-off in 1st January to determine whether an individual is among the oldest (right to the cut-off) or among the youngest (left to the cut-off) within her cohort. We find that being relatively old has a positive effect on the access-to-university examination score for female students but not for their male peers. In addition, this effect seems to be concentrated in the upper quantiles of the entry score distribution and attenuates for university grades. We attribute this effect to a virtuous circle developed from early childhood, which is a recurring cycle of behavioral responses that translates into higher self-confidence for older students. Women appear to be more sensible to this effect than men.
    Keywords: month of birth, academic achievement, behavioral responses, gender, sharp regression discontinuity
    JEL: C01 D9 I23
    Date: 2020–01

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