nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2020‒01‒13
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Canadian Gender Gap in Financial Literacy: Confidence Matters By Raquel Fonseca Benito; Simon Lord
  2. Equilibrium Grade Inflation with Implications for Female Interest in STEM Majors By Thomas Ahn; Peter Arcidiacono; Amy Hopson; James R. Thomas
  3. A Marriage-Market Perspective on Risk-Taking and Career Choices: Theory and Evidence By Zhang, Hanzhe
  4. Coordinated Work Schedules and the Gender Wage Gap By German Cubas; Chinhui Juhn; Pedro Silos
  5. Synthetic Control Inference for Staggered Adoption: Estimating the Dynamic Effects of Board Gender Diversity Policies By Jianfei Cao; Shirley Lu
  6. The Effects of Paternity Leave on Parents’ Earnings Trajectories and Earnings Inequality By Choi, Youjin; Holm, Anders; Margolis, Rachel

  1. By: Raquel Fonseca Benito; Simon Lord
    Abstract: We construct a financial literacy index as well as a financial confidence index in order to evaluate the effect of confidence on financial literacy, and more specifically, on the gender gap in financial literacy. Results confirm the existence of a gender gap in financial literacy in Canada, and show that having a higher confidence in one’s financial skills and knowledge is indeed a factor that increases one’s financial literacy. Financial confidence is found not to track actual financial skills very closely across different ages, especially for women, and at older ages. We also find evidence that financial literacy and decision making are related to the relative education level of spouses. Using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, confidence is also found to explain 14.15% of the gender gap in financial literacy, while being self-employed explains 19% of the gap, and taking part in the financial planning accounts for 16.76% of the gender gap difference. We find that most of the gap remains unexplained by differences in coefficients of men and women.
    Keywords: Gender,Financial Literacy,Financial Confidence,
    JEL: G0 I22 H00
    Date: 2019–12–17
  2. By: Thomas Ahn; Peter Arcidiacono; Amy Hopson; James R. Thomas
    Abstract: Substantial earnings differences exist across majors with the majors that pay well also having lower grades and higher workloads. We show that the harsher grading policies in STEM courses disproportionately affect women. To show this, we estimate a model of student demand courses and optimal effort choices of students conditional on the chosen courses. Instructor grading policies are treated as equilibrium objects that in part depend on student demand for courses. Restrictions on grading policies that equalize average grades across classes helps to close the STEM gender gap as well as increasing overall enrollment in STEM classes.
    JEL: I23 J16
    Date: 2019–12
  3. By: Zhang, Hanzhe (Michigan State University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how the marriage market affects risk-taking and career choices in a general equilibrium framework, and provides a marriage-market-based justification for risk-taking. Furthermore, by only assuming women's inability to reap the benefits of a risky career due to their shorter reproductive span, the paper predicts that compared with men, women (a) are less likely to choose a risky career when unmarried, (b) have lower within-gender income inequality, (c) marry earlier, and (d) are more likely to switch to a risky career when married. I provide evidence consistent with these predictions.
    Keywords: marriage market; risk-taking; college major choices; career choices; differential fecundity; gender differences
    JEL: C78 D31 J12 J16
    Date: 2020–01–01
  4. By: German Cubas; Chinhui Juhn; Pedro Silos
    Abstract: Using U.S. time diary data we construct occupation-level measures of coordinated work schedules based on the concentration of hours worked during peak hours of the day. A higher degree of coordination is associated with higher wages but also a larger gender wage gap. In the data women with children allocate more time to household care and are penalized by missing work during peak hours. An equilibrium model with these key elements generates a gender wage gap of 6.6 percent or approximately 30 percent of the wage gap observed among married men and women with children. If the need for coordination is equalized across occupations and set to a relatively low value (i.e. Health care support), the gender gap would fall by more than half to 2.7 percent.
    JEL: E24 J2 J3
    Date: 2019–12
  5. By: Jianfei Cao; Shirley Lu
    Abstract: We introduce a synthetic control methodology to study policies with staggered adoption. Many policies, such as the board gender quota, are replicated by other policy setters at different time frames. Our method estimates the dynamic average treatment effects on the treated using variation introduced by the staggered adoption of policies. Our method gives asymptotically unbiased estimators of many interesting quantities and delivers asymptotically valid inference. By using the proposed method and national labor data in Europe, we find evidence that quota regulation on board diversity leads to a decrease in part-time employment, and an increase in full-time employment for female professionals.
    Date: 2019–12
  6. By: Choi, Youjin; Holm, Anders; Margolis, Rachel (University of Western Ontario)
    Abstract: Paid parental leave from work reserved for mothers and fathers is one policy that has been proposed to equalize labor force participation, wages, and childcare for men and women. We examine the effects of fathers’ use of parental leave on paternal, maternal and family earnings, as well as earnings inequality within the family exploiting the institution of the Quebec Parental Insurance Program which reserved 5 weeks of leave for fathers. We find that ten years after the birth, father’s use of parental leave increases family income and makes wages more equal within the family.
    Date: 2019–08–09

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