nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒12‒23
three papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Disability Insurance: Error Rates and Gender Differences By Hamish Low; Luigi Pistaferri
  2. Women on boards: do quotas affect firm performance? By Cécile Casteuble; Laetitia Lepetit; Thu Tha Tran
  3. Gender Promotion Gap in Japanese Academia in 2004-2013: Has It Change Over Time? By Ana Maria Takahashi; Shingo Takahashi; Atsuko Ueda

  1. By: Hamish Low; Luigi Pistaferri
    Abstract: We show the extent of errors made in the award of disability insurance using matched survey-administrative data. False rejections (Type I errors) are widespread, and there are large gender differences in these type I error rates. Women with a severe, work-limiting, permanent impairment are 20 percentage points more likely to be rejected than men, controlling for the type of health condition, occupation, and a host of demographic characteristics. We investigate whether these gender differences in Type I errors are due to women being in better health than men, to women having lower pain thresholds, or to women applying more readily for disability insurance. None of these explanations are consistent with the data. We use evidence from disability vignettes to suggest that there are different acceptance thresholds for men and women. The differences by gender arise because women are more likely to be assessed as being able to find other work than observationally equivalent men. Despite this, after rejection, women with a self-reported work limitation do not return to work, compared to rejected women without a work limitation.
    Keywords: Disability Insurance, Gender Differences
    JEL: I38 J16
    Date: 2019–12–06
  2. By: Cécile Casteuble (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Laetitia Lepetit (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - IR SHS UNILIM - Institut Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société - UNILIM - Université de Limoges); Thu Tha Tran (EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the impact of gender quotas on firm performance using countries worldwide that have introduced a gender quota with sanction as a quasi-natural experiment. Our statistical analysis shows that board members' characteristics significantly change after the implementation of the gender quota. The results of our empirical analysis provide evidence that gender quotas have a neutral impact on firm performance in the short term and in the longer term, independently of changes in directors' age, education, nationality, experience or independence. Our findings provide evidence that policymakers can use mandatory quotas to force firms to achieve gender balance on corporate boards without a negative impact on firm performance. Our results also suggest that policymakers create unrealistic expectations for women to boost firm performance. JEL Classification: G34, G38.
    Keywords: gender quotas,Corporate governance,firm performance
    Date: 2019–11–28
  3. By: Ana Maria Takahashi (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University); Shingo Takahashi (Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation); Atsuko Ueda (School of Political Science and Economics)
    Abstract: Using a complete survey of the entire faculty covering 2004 to 2013, we examine the gender promotion gap in Japanese academia and assess how it changed over time. The gap at the full professor rank in national and local public universities stayed constant at slightly above 7 percentage points, while the gap in private universities exhibited a mild increase from 5.9 to 8.1 percentage points. When we combine all universities, the gap shows a slight increase from 6.9 to 7.8 percentage points. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and social science fields in public universities have significantly higher gaps than other fields. We do not find consistent evidence that the two governmental grants, the ‘Grant Program for Supporting Female Researchers’ and the ‘Grant Program to Accelerate the Reform of Training Female Researchers’, that aimed to foster female academics’ careers, have reduced the gender promotion gaps. We also find no evidence that these grants increased the department level share of female faculty. JEL Classification: J7
    Date: 2019–12

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