nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒12‒16
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender Gaps in Pay and Inter-Firm Mobility By Bredemeier, Christian
  2. What Men Can Do to Reduce Gender Inequality in Science, Medicine, and Global Health: Small Wins and Organizational Change By Yavorsky, Jill; Banks, George Christopher; McGonagle, Alyssa
  3. Female Workers, Male Managers: Gender, Leadership, and Risk-Taking By Rinne, Ulf; Sonnabend, Hendrik
  4. Leaning In or Not Leaning Out? Opt-Out Choice Framing Attenuates Gender Differences in the Decision to Compete By Joyce He; Sonia Kang; Nicola Lacetera

  1. By: Bredemeier, Christian (University of Wuppertal)
    Abstract: The gender gap in inter-firm mobility is an important contributor to the gender pay gap but is as yet unexplained. In a structural model of workplace choice, I show that the gender mobility gap can be understood as a consequence of women's typical roles as secondary earners in most households which induces households to put more weight on the non-pay dimensions of women's workplaces. I provide direct empirical evidence for this explanation by documenting that the sensitivity of quits to wages is weaker the less an individual contributes to household earnings. Furthermore, gender differences are small once differences in earner roles are accounted for. My quantitative model evaluations show that ignoring the influence of earner roles on inter-firm mobility leads to substantial biases in wage-gap decompositions and predicted policy effects.
    Keywords: labor-market monopsony, gender gaps, job mobility, discrimination
    JEL: J42 J16 J62 J71
    Date: 2019–11
  2. By: Yavorsky, Jill; Banks, George Christopher (University of North Carolina at Charlotte); McGonagle, Alyssa
    Abstract: Background: Gender inequality remains a pressing issue in science, medicine, and global health. Much of the scientific literature focuses on inequality-reduction strategies specific to women. Far less attention, however, has been paid to men’s roles in reducing gender-based barriers, despite that men dominate nearly all authority structures within science, medicine, and global health and thus have greater power to influence organizational cultures and women’s upward mobility. Methods: We review literature from business and social sciences, apply them to areas of science, health, and medicine, and deliver eight actionable, evidence-based recommendations with a distinct focus on involving men in organizational change. We highlight both “small wins” (practices that all men can implement) and organizational-level strategic culture and policy changes. Findings: Our recommendations are as follows: (1) Men should ensure that women have ample space to communicate their ideas; (2) Male leaders should seek out and highlight women’s contributions; (3) Men should take public stances against other men’s actions and language that demean, harass, and negatively stereotype women; (4) Men should actively promote cultural artifacts in organizations that equally represent both genders; (5) Leaders should implement policies that support work-family balance, such as flexible work arrangements and paid family leave; (6) Men should use flexible work arrangements and paternity leave options, encourage other men to do the same, and refrain from evaluating men and women differently when they use them; (7) Men should diversify their networks to include women and ensure they disperse information about advancement opportunities to both men and women; (8) Finally, men in leadership positions should advocate for, and, importantly, sponsor women. Interpretation: We argue that men play a critical role in reducing gender-inequality and can take concrete actions to promote the advancement of women in science, medicine, and global health. Funding: We received no funding for this work.
    Date: 2019–08–24
  3. By: Rinne, Ulf (IZA); Sonnabend, Hendrik (Fern Universität Hagen)
    Abstract: This study examines gender differences in risk-taking behavior among managers in a female-dominated industry. Using data from international top-level women's soccer, we provide evidence that male coaches show a lower level of risk-taking than female coaches on average. We also find a U-shaped age effect that is independent of gender, meaning that young and more mature individuals tend to take riskier decisions. Our main results therefore strongly contrast with the majority of previous studies on gender differences in risk preferences, and thereby emphasize the importance of considering the industrial environment. Underlying selection processes may play an important role. We find no correlation between the gender gap in risk-taking and female empowerment defined by national gender equality scores.
    Keywords: gender, risk-taking, leadership, management, female empowerment
    JEL: D81 J16 J4 M12 Z29
    Date: 2019–10
  4. By: Joyce He; Sonia Kang; Nicola Lacetera
    Abstract: In most organizations, promotions often require self-nomination and competition among applicants. However, research on gender differences in preferences for competition suggests that this process might result in fewer women choosing to participate. We study whether changing promotion schemes from a default where applicants must opt in (i.e., self-nominate) to a default where applicants must opt out (i.e., they are automatically considered for promotion, but can choose not to be considered) attenuates gender differences. In our first experiment, although women are less likely than men to choose competitive environments under the traditional opt-in framing, in the opt-out system both women and men have the same participation rate as men in the opt-in system. The increase in participation of women into competition is not associated with negative consequences on performance or well-being. In our second experiment, we show that opt-out framing does not entail penalties from evaluators making decisions about whom to hire. These results support the promise of choice architecture to reduce disparities in organizations. More generally, our findings suggest that gender differences in attitudes toward completion may be context-dependent.
    JEL: C91 D03 D91 J16 J24 J82 M5
    Date: 2019–11

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