nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒12‒09
nine papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. The Gender Gap in Wages over the Life Course: Evidence from a British Cohort Born in 1958 By Joshi, Heather; Bryson, Alex; Wilkinson, David; Ward, Kelly
  2. Gender gap in public good preferences in Africa: Do gender norms matter? By Oulimata Ndiaye
  3. Gender discrimination in academic careers in Italy By Filandri, Marianna; Pasqua, Silvia
  4. Does Gender Matter for Promotion in Academia? Evidence from Physicists in France By Jacques Mairesse; Michele Pezzoni; Fabiana Visentin
  5. Gender Gaps in Education By Bertocchi, Graziella; Bozzano, Monica
  6. Attainment and Gender Equality in Higher Education: Evidence from a Large Scale Expansion By Caner, Asena; Demirel, Merve; Okten, Cagla
  7. Access to Formal Credit and Gender Income Gap: The Case of Farmers in Cambodia By SAM, Vichet
  8. ‘All little girls, the bad luck!’ Sex ratios and gender discrimination in 19th-century Greece By Francisco J. Beltrán Tapia; Michail Raftakis
  9. Gender Differences in the Effect of Employee-Manager Friendships on Salary Dynamics in CPA Firms By Tobol, Yossef; Bar-El, Ronen; Arbel, Yuval; Azar, Ofer H.

  1. By: Joshi, Heather (University College London); Bryson, Alex (University College London); Wilkinson, David (University College London); Ward, Kelly (University College London)
    Abstract: Using data tracking all those born in a single week in Great Britain in 1958 through to their mid-50s we observe an inverse U-shaped gender wage gap (GWG) over their life- course: an initial gap in early adulthood widened substantially during childrearing years, affecting earnings in full-time and part-time jobs. In our descriptive approach, education related differences are minor. Gender differences in work experience are the biggest contributor to that part of the gender wage gap we can explain in our models. Family formation primarily affects the GWG through its impact on work experience. Family composition is similar for male and female workers but attracts opposite wage premia. Not all of the GWG however is linked to family formation. There was a sizeable GWG on labour market entry and there are some otherwise unexplained gaps between the pay of men and women who do not become parents.
    Keywords: family formation, gender wage gap, work experience, life course, NCDS birth cohort
    JEL: J16 J31
    Date: 2019–10
  2. By: Oulimata Ndiaye (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - Clermont Auvergne - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: I present new evidence on how norms and traditions can affect women's public good preferences in Africa. A substantial literature has examined the determinants of gender differences in political attitudes. Existing work has found a gender gap in public good preferences. However, there are few attempts to explain this gap. In this article, I aim to investigate whether the preferences of men and women differ in Africa, and if so, to explore the source of the observed gender differences. The choice of Africa is meaningful as very few works on gender preferences have been done in this region where the weight of tradition is strong regarding the role of men and women in the society. Using Afrobarometer data for 36 African countries, I investigate whether and how the preferences of men and women differ. The results show that norms about the role of women play a role in explaining differences in gender preferences. Women in Africa have systematically a preference for social field (education, health) and less preference for additional investment in infrastructure, regardless of their level of empowerment or the prevailing norm on gender role. However, in countries where gender norms are less favorable to women, women report higher preferences in agriculture, closing the gender gap with men.
    Keywords: Gender gap,Social norms,Tradition,Policy priorities
    Date: 2019–11–15
  3. By: Filandri, Marianna; Pasqua, Silvia (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The article analyses the effect of gender in Italian professors’ career advancement using data on the entire population of professors in the Italian university system, data on the National Scientific Qualification (NSQ) accreditation scheme, and data on scientific productivity (SciVal) for bibliometric scientific sectors. As NSQ accreditation is a prerequisite for career advancement in Italian universities, using this data makes it possible to rule out women’s reluctance to apply for promotions and low productivity as mechanisms for explaining the gender gap in academia. In fact, candidate professors must apply for accreditation and reach a minimum level of scientific productivity established by the accreditation committees. Among academics who obtained NSQ accreditation, our findings show that gender differences in productivity do not fully explain women’s lower rate of career advancement. The gender gap also remains after controlling for available resources and for the percentage of female full professors in the academic scientific sector.
    Date: 2019–10
  4. By: Jacques Mairesse (Maastricht University (unu-merit); CREST-ENSAE; EHESS; NBER); Michele Pezzoni (Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, GREDEG, France); Fabiana Visentin (Maastricht University; UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: In this study, we examine the promotion dynamics at the largest European public research organization in basic science, the French Institute of Physics (INP) at CNRS. We construct a long panel combining a dataset on the career histories of INP scientists with information collected through an extensive survey. Using event history analysis, we find that, having controlled for scientific productivity, female and male physicists have the same promotion rate from junior to senior positions. However, promotion factors such as family characteristics, mentoring, professional network, research responsibilities have a different impact on female and male researchers. Our findings provide important hints to female and male researchers who intend to leverage these factors to develop a strategy for their promotion.
    Keywords: Gender parity, Promotion, Research productivity, Family characteristics, Research Responsibilities, Mentoring activities, Panel Data, Event history analysis
    JEL: I23 J13
    Date: 2019–11
  5. By: Bertocchi, Graziella (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia); Bozzano, Monica (University of Pavia)
    Abstract: This chapter reviews the growing body of research in economics which concentrates on the education gender gap and its evolution, over time and across countries. The survey first focuses on gender differentials in the historical period that roughly goes from 1850 to the 1940s and documents the deep determinants of the early phase of female education expansion, including pre-industrial conditions, religion, and family and kinship patterns. Next, the survey describes the stylized facts of contemporaneous gender gaps in education, from the 1950s to the present day, accounting for several alternative measures of attainment and achievement and for geographic and temporal differentiations. The determinants of the gaps are then summarized, while keeping a strong emphasis on an historical perspective and disentangling factors related to the labor market, family formation, psychological elements, and societal cultural norms. A discussion follows of the implications of the education gender gap for multiple realms, from economic growth to family life, taking into account the potential for reverse causation. Special attention is devoted to the persistency of gender gaps in the STEM and economics fields.
    Keywords: education, gender, gap
    JEL: J1 N3 O1
    Date: 2019–10
  6. By: Caner, Asena (TOBB University of Economy and Technology); Demirel, Merve (Bilkent University); Okten, Cagla (Bilkent University)
    Abstract: We examine the dramatic expansion in the Turkish higher education system during 2006-2008, which resulted in the establishment of 41 new public universities and a 60% increase in the number of available slots. Using the variation in the exposure intensity of expansion across cohorts and regions, we estimate the causal effect of the expansion on overall attainment and the gender gap in higher education. Before the expansion, women had lower higher education rates. The expansion increased the attainment rates of both men and women but failed to reduce the gender gap. Comparing the scale of expansion across fields of study, we observe that the largest growth in available slots was in social sciences and engineering. The expansion of slots in social sciences benefited men and women evenly, but the expansion in engineering benefited men more than women, thereby raising the gender gap.
    Keywords: higher education expansion, educational attainment, gender gap, Turkey
    JEL: I23 I24 I28
    Date: 2019–10
  7. By: SAM, Vichet
    Abstract: This article analyzes the factors that drive the gender income difference among farmers in Cambodia with a focus on the access to formal credit, using the FinScope survey data. First, an Ordinary Least Square regression (OLS) is used to investigate the main determinants of farmers’ income, while an instrumental variable approach (IV) is estimated to check the causal effect of the access to formal credit on earnings. Next, the Blinder-Oaxaca technique is employed to decompose the gender earnings gap. Results from OLS regression show that individual education and health, farm size and other inputs, irrigation system and weather conditions, access to market and formal credit are strongly associated with farmers’ earnings, while the positive impact of access to formal credit is also confirmed by the IV regression at 5% significant level. These results suggest that improving infrastructure and formal credit access in the rural areas play a critical role in increasing farmers’ income. Then, based on the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique, most of gender earnings difference is due to the endowment effect in favor of male farmers such as education, farm size and volume of work hours. Access to formal credit also contributes to the gender earnings gap, yet not in terms of endowment but coefficient effect, as a higher return to credit access for male farmers is observed. This could be due to the levels of education and financial literacy that are higher for men, allowing them to use the formal credit better. Closing the gap in education and financial literacy would therefore reduce their earnings gap. Discrimination against female farmers, not in terms of credit access, but in loan amount should be worth to consider as well, as the median of loan amounts of male farmers is higher than those of female. If such discrimination exists, it could also limit the women’s capacity to manage and invest in their farms effectively, and thus, the return to credit access must be lower for female farmers.
    Keywords: J16, J31, J43, J71
    JEL: J16 J31 J43 J71
    Date: 2019–11–21
  8. By: Francisco J. Beltrán Tapia (Norwegian University of Science and Technology); Michail Raftakis (Newcastle University)
    Abstract: Based on anecdotal evidence on girls’ inferior status and the analysis of sex ratios, this article argues that son preference resulted in gender discriminatory practices that unduly increased female mortality rates in infancy and childhood in Greece during the late-19th and early-20th century. The relative number of boys and girls was extremely high early in life and female under-registration alone is not likely to explain this result. Female infanticide and/or the mortal neglect of infant girls played therefore a more important role than previously acknowledged. Likewise, sex ratios increased as children grew older, thus suggesting that parents continued to treat boys and girls differently throughout childhood. Lastly, the analysis of province-level information shows that economic and social conditions influenced how the value of girls was perceived in different contexts, thus aggravating or mitigating female excess mortality.
    Keywords: Sex ratios, Infant and child mortality, Gender discrimination, Health
    JEL: I14 I15 J13 J16 N33
    Date: 2019–11
  9. By: Tobol, Yossef (Jerusalem College of Technology (JTC)); Bar-El, Ronen (Open University of Israel); Arbel, Yuval (School of Business, Carmel Academic Center); Azar, Ofer H. (Ben Gurion University)
    Abstract: We study the effect of employee-manager relations on salary increases. We use data obtained from a longitudinal survey, carried out among auditing team members in leading Israeli CPA firms (which are subsidiaries of American firms). Our main findings suggest that the degree of friendship with the team manager is positively correlated with the rate of the salary increase, particularly among female workers whose team manager is also a female. We also find that upon being hired to the job, male workers gain a higher return to experience compared with female workers.
    Keywords: CPA, friendship, gender salary gap, wage determination
    JEL: C33 D03 J31 J71
    Date: 2019–10

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