nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒10‒28
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. You’re the One That I Want! Public Employment and Women’s Labor Market Outcomes By Gomes, Pedro Maia; Kuehn, Zoë
  2. What explains the gender gap in wealth? Evidence from administrative data By Jaanika Merikull; Merike Kukk; Tairi Room
  4. #EleNão: Economic crisis, the political gender gap, and the election of Bolsonaro By Laura Barros; Manuel Santos Silva
  5. Explaining the Gender Gap in Job Satisfaction By Redmond, Paul; McGuinness, Seamus
  6. Motivating Low-Achievers—Relative Performance Feedback in Primary Schools By Henning Hermes; Martin Huschens; Franz Rothlauf; Daniel Schunk
  7. Occupational segregation of female and male immigrants in the European Union: accounting for cross-country differences By Amaia Palencia-Esteban

  1. By: Gomes, Pedro Maia (Birkbeck, University of London); Kuehn, Zoë (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid)
    Abstract: In most countries, the public sector hires disproportionally more women than men. We document gender differences in employment, transition probabilities, hours, and wages in the public and private sector using microdata for the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and Spain. We then build a search and matching model where men and women decide if to participate and if to enter private or public sector labor markets. We calibrate our model separately to the four countries. Running counterfactual experiments, we quantify whether the selection of women into the public sector is driven by: (i) lower gender wage gaps and thus relatively higher wages for women in the public sector, (ii) possibilities of better conciliation of work and family life for public sector workers, (iii) greater job security in the public compared to the private sector, or (iv) intrinsic preferences for public sector occupations. We find that, quantitatively, women's higher public sector wage premia and their preferences for working in the public sector explain most of the selection. We calculate the monetary value of public sector job security and work-life balance premia, for both men and women, and we estimate how higher public sector wages and employment affect male and female unemployment, inactivity rates, and wages differently.
    Keywords: public sector employment, female labor force participation, gender wage gap
    JEL: J21 J16 J45 H10 E60
    Date: 2019–10
  2. By: Jaanika Merikull; Merike Kukk; Tairi Room
    Abstract: This paper studies the gender gap in net wealth. We use administrative data on wealth that are linked to the Estonian Household Finance and Consumption Survey, which provides individual-level wealth data for all household types. We find that the unconditional gender gap in mean wealth is 45% and that it is caused by large wealth disparities in the upper end of the wealth distribution. The structure of assets owned by men is more diversified than that for women. Men own more business assets and vehicles, while women own more deposits. The gender gaps in these asset components cannot be explained by observable characteristics. For partner-headed households the raw gender gaps across deciles are mostly in favour of men, and more strongly so for married couples, indicating that resources are not entirely pooled within households. For single-member households the raw gaps across quantiles are partially in favour of women. Accounting for observable characteristics renders the unexplained parts of the gaps mostly insignificant for all household types
    Keywords: gender gap, wealth, inequality, intra-household allocation of wealth, Estonia
    JEL: D31 J16 J71
    Date: 2019–10–16
  3. By: Natalia Soboleva (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Nowadays, in Europe, women do not have lower education as compared to men, but they are often less advantaged in their careers. The study aimed to reveal the association between gender attitudes, achievement motivation and realisation of this achievement motivation among the working women in Europe. According to multilevel regression modelling on European Social Survey (2010) data on employed individuals, women and men with more egalitarian gender attitudes in general have higher achievement motivation and are more likely to be able to influence policy decisions in their organisations. The impact of achievement motivation on the possibility to influence decisions was very strong in all the countries. The models with cross-level interaction showed that in most cases the association between the three aspects are more pronounced in countries with higher female participation in the labor market.
    Keywords: Gender attitudes, gender differences, achievement motivation, cross-country analysis, labour market
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Laura Barros (University of Goettingen / Germany); Manuel Santos Silva (University of Goettingen / Germany)
    Abstract: After more than one decade of sustained economic growth, accompanied by falling poverty and inequality, Brazil has been hit by an economic recession starting in 2014. This paper investigates the consequences of this labor market shock for the victory of far-right Jair Bolsonaro in the 2018 presidential election. Using a shiftshare approach and exploring the differential effects of the recession by gender and race, we show that heterogeneity in exposure to the labor demand shock by the different groups is a key factor explaining the victory of Bolsonaro. Our results show that male-specific labor market shocks increase support for Bolsonaro, while female-specific shocks have the opposite effect. Interestingly, we do not find any effect by race. We hypothesize that, once facing economic insecurities, men feel more compelled to vote for a figure that exacerbates masculine stereotypes, as a way of compensating for the loss in economic status. Women, on the other hand, when confronted with economic shocks and the prospect of Bolsonaro’s election, respond by rejecting his political agenda in favor of a more pro-social platform.
    Keywords: economic shocks, populism, gender, voter participation
    JEL: D72 J16 J23 P16 R23
    Date: 2019–08–15
  5. By: Redmond, Paul (ESRI, Dublin); McGuinness, Seamus (Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin)
    Abstract: In general, women report greater job satisfaction than men. The existing literature cannot fully explain the nature of this difference, as the gap tends to persist even when controlling for job characteristics. In this paper, we study job satisfaction using recent data for 28 EU countries. Women, on average, are more satisfied than men and the gap remains even when we account for a wide range of personal, job and family characteristics. However, the gap disappears when we include job preferences, as women place greater importance on work-life balance and the intrinsic desirability of the work.
    Keywords: job satisfaction, job preferences, gender
    JEL: J16 J28 J24
    Date: 2019–10
  6. By: Henning Hermes (NHH Norwegian School of Economics); Martin Huschens (Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz); Franz Rothlauf (Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz); Daniel Schunk (Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz)
    Abstract: Relative performance feedback ( RPF ) has often been shown to improve effort and performance in the workplace and educational settings. Yet, many studies also document substantial negative effects of RPF, in particular for low-achievers. We study a novel type of RPF designed to overcome these negative effects of RPF on low-achievers by scoring individual performance improvements. With a sample of about 400 children, we conduct a class-wise randomized-controlled trial in regular teaching lessons in primary schools. We demonstrate that this type of RPF significantly increases motivation, effort, and performance in math for low-achieving children, without hurting high-achieving children. Among low-achievers, those receiving more points and moving up in the ranking improved strongest on motivation and math performance. In addition, we document substantial gender differences in response to this type of RPF: improvements in motivation and learning are much stronger for girls. We argue that using this novel type of RPF could potentially reduce inequalities, especially in educational settings.
    Keywords: relative performance feedback, rankings, randomized-controlled trial, education, gender differences, inequality
    Date: 2019–06–23
  7. By: Amaia Palencia-Esteban
    Abstract: The paper studies occupational segregation by gender and immigration status in the European Union using the 2005–2015 European Labour Force Survey. Compared to prior studies, it quantifies the levels of segregation that female and male immigrants experience in each country, while undertaking counterfactual and regression analyzes to account for cross-country differences. Overall, male immigrants have lower occupational segregation than their female counterparts and the second-generation is less segregated than the first one. Regarding the geographical differences, a larger union density and involuntary part-time employment are associated with higher segregation, whereas a larger welfare provision, unemployment rate and policies easing family reunion or access to nationality reduce segregation.
    Keywords: Occupational segregation; gender; immigration; European Union
    JEL: D63 J15 J16 J71
    Date: 2019–10

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