nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒10‒07
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. The Gender Gap: Micro Sources and Macro Consequences By Iacopo Morchio; Christian Moser
  2. The Role of Culture on Female Labor Supply: Evidence from Turkey By Akyol, Pelin; Okten, Cagla
  3. Gender bias and women political performance By Michela, Cella; Elena, Manzoni
  4. A Bit of Salt, a Trace of Life: Gender Norms and the Impact of a Salt Iodization Program on Human Capital Formation of School Aged Children By Deng, Zichen; Lindeboom, Maarten
  5. Do Workers Discriminate against Female Bosses? By Abel, Martin
  7. Emotions, Uncertainty, Gender and Residential Real Estate Prices: Evidence from a Bubble Market By Paul Ryan; Clare Branigan

  1. By: Iacopo Morchio (University of Vienna); Christian Moser (Columbia University)
    Abstract: We investigate the sources of the gender wage gap and its relation to firm heterogeneity. We document a gender wage gap of 20 log points conditional on education interacted with experience, state, industry, and occupation among workers in Brazil. Accounting for unobservable worker and firm heterogeneity, we find that around 46 percent of the residual gender wage gap is between firms, while the remainder is within firms. We highlight lower labor market mobility of women relative to men as an important explanatory factor for pay differences both within and between firms. We develop an equilibrium search model with firm productivity differences, worker ability differences, gender-specific amenities, and employer taste for discrimination. We use the estimated model to show that gender differences in life-cycle mobility across employers are a major contributor to the observed gaps and associated with sizable negative consequences for macroeconomic outcomes such as aggregate productivity, employment, and output.
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Akyol, Pelin (Bilkent University); Okten, Cagla (Bilkent University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of culture on female labor market outcomes using new micro-level data on two distinct Muslim denominations in Turkey: Sunni and Alevi Muslims. We find a positive and significant effect of being an Alevi Muslim on female labor force participation and employment probability compared to a Sunni Muslim whereas there are no significant differences in male labor market outcomes between the two denominations. We provide evidence that Alevi Muslims have more gender equal views regarding the role of women in the labor market and argue that differences in gender views drive the results.
    Keywords: female labor force participation, culture, gender
    JEL: J16 J21
    Date: 2019–09
  3. By: Michela, Cella; Elena, Manzoni
    Abstract: We model voters' gender bias as a prejudice on women's competence coming from a distorted prior. We analyse the effect of this bias in a two-period two-party election in which voters care about both ideology and competence. We find that female politicians are less likely to win office but, when elected have higher competence on average. As a consequence, they choose to seek re-election more often. We also show that if parties endogenously select candidates, the effect of gender bias is stronger, in that we observe fewer female candidates and elected politicians, and of higher competence. This holds even when parties are not biased.
    Keywords: gender bias, elections, female politicians.
    JEL: D72 D91 J16
    Date: 2019–06
  4. By: Deng, Zichen (affiliation not available); Lindeboom, Maarten (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of a massive salt iodization program on human capital formation of school-aged children in China. Exploiting province and time variation we find strong positive effects on cognition for girls and no effects for boys. For non-cognitive skills we find the opposite. We show in a simple model of parental investment that gender preferences can explain our findings. Analyses exploiting within province, village level variation in gender attitudes confirm the importance of parental gender preferences. Consequently, large scale programs can have positive (and possibly) unintended effects on gender equality in societies where boy preferences are important.
    Keywords: iodine, parental investments, gender attitudes, cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills
    JEL: I15 J16 J24
    Date: 2019–09
  5. By: Abel, Martin (Middlebury College)
    Abstract: I hire 2,700 workers for a transcription job, randomly assigning the gender of their (fictitious) manager and provision of performance feedback. While praise from a manager has no effect, criticism negatively impacts workers' job satisfaction and perception of the task's importance. When female managers, rather than male, deliver this feedback, the negative effects double in magnitude. Having a critical female manager does not affect effort provision but it does lower workers' interest in working for the firm in the future. These findings hold for both female and male workers. I show that results are consistent with gendered expectations of feedback among workers. By contrast, I find no evidence for the role of either attention discrimination or implicit gender bias.
    Keywords: gender discrimination, gig economy, female leadership
    JEL: J50 J70
    Date: 2019–09
  6. By: Maryna Tverdostup; Tiiu Paas
    Abstract: This paper investigates the gender wage gap in relation to the multi-dimensional human capital measure across 17 European countries. To date, the role of cognitive and task-specific skills had a limited empirical evidence in the gender wage gap literature. We narrow this research gap by relying on PIAAC (Program of International Assessment of Adult Competencies) data and applying Gelbach’s (2016) decomposition methodology. The analysis reveals that occupation-/industry-specific work experience and task-specific cognitive and non-cognitive skills are the most rewarding human capital attainments. Work experience largely decreases the gender wage disparity in all analysed countries. Cognitive numeracy skill is another strong predictor of gender wage disparity. The effect of numeracy is rather homogeneous across countries, namely, controlling for numeracy reduces the wage gap. Unlike studies that stress the decreasing importance of human capital in gender wage gap assessments, we argue that a narrow definition of human capital may undermine the actual effect of the latter. Therefore, we conclude that human capital should be viewed as a combination of multiple characteristics and traits, each having specific valuation on the labour market, and thus, a particular role in explaining the gender wage gap.
    Keywords: gender, human capital, cognitive and non-cognitive skills, wage gap
    Date: 2019
  7. By: Paul Ryan; Clare Branigan
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of valuation uncertainty on residential property prices near the peak of a bubble. Our hand-collected sample comprises the sequence of bids and gender of the participating bidders at Irish residential real estate auctions, prior to the collapse of a bubble, which when it burst had disastrous implications for the banking system and the economy itself. Portfolios of practitioner- and hedonic pricing model-selected self-similar properties provide benchmark property price estimates and uncertainty is calculated by reference to various measures of dispersion related to prices achieved for comparable properties. We find, in aggregate, auction winners do not shade bids with increased valuation uncertainty. In addition, winning female bidders, in contrast to findings in the extant literature across a wide range of academic disciplines, including experimental bubble markets, are not less risk averse, or more likely to shy away from competitive situations than their male counterparts.
    Keywords: Auctions; Bubble; Competition; emotional finance; Emotions; female bidders; real estate bubble; Uncertainty; valuation uncertainty
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2019–01–01

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