nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒09‒23
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Macroeconomic effects of gender discrimination By Neyer, Ulrike; Stempel, Daniel
  2. What's Math Got to Do With It? Multidimensional Ability and the Gender Gap in STEM By Fernando Saltiel
  3. On Her Own Account: How Strengthening Women’s Financial Control Impacts Labor Supply and Gender Norms By Erica Field; Rohini Pande; Natalia Rigol; Simone Schaner; Charity Troyer Moore
  4. The gendered impacts of delayed parenthood on educational and labor market outcomes: a dynamic analysis of population-level effects over young adulthood By Jessica Nisén; Maarten J. Bijlsma; Pekka Martikainen; Ben Wilson; Mikko Myrskylä

  1. By: Neyer, Ulrike; Stempel, Daniel
    Abstract: This paper theoretically analyzes the macroeconomic effects of gender discrimination against women in the labor market in a New Keynesian model. We extend standard frameworks by including unpaid household production in addition to paid labor market work, by assuming that the representative household consists of two agents, and by introducing discriminatory behavior on the firms' side. We find that, in steady state, this discrimination implies that women work inefficiently more in the household and less in the paid labor market than men. This inefficient working time allocation between women and men leads to a discrimination-induced gender wage gap, lower wages for women and men, lower aggregate output, and lower welfare. The analysis of dynamic effects reveals that households benefit less from positive technology shocks. Moreover, the transmission of expansionary monetary policy shocks on output and in ation is lower in the discriminatory environment.
    Keywords: New Keynesian Models,Gender Discrimination,Household Production,Monetary Policy Transmission
    JEL: D13 D31 E32 E52 J71
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Fernando Saltiel (University of Maryland, College Park)
    Abstract: This paper studies the relationship between pre-college skills and the gender gap in STEM majors. Using longitudinal data for the United States, I estimate a discrete choice model of initial and final major choices in which college students sort into majors based on observed characteristics and unobserved ability. More specifically, I distinguish observed test scores from latent ability. I find that math test scores significantly overstate gender gaps in math problem solving ability. Math problem solving ability strongly predicts STEM enrollment and completion for men and women. I further explore the importance of math self-efficacy, which captures students’ beliefs about their ability to perform math-related tasks. Math self-efficacy raises both men’s and women’s probability of enrolling in a STEM major. Math self-efficacy also plays a critical role in explaining decisions to drop out of STEM majors for women, but not for men. The correlation between the two math ability components is higher for men than for women, indicating a relative shortfall of high-achieving women who are confident in their math ability. Lastly, I estimate the returns to STEM enrollment and completion and find large returns for high math ability women. These findings suggest that well-focused math self-efficacy interventions could boost women’s STEM participation and graduation rates. Further, given the high returns to a STEM major for high math ability women, such interventions also could improve women’s labor market outcomes.
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Erica Field (Duke University); Rohini Pande (Cowles Foundation, Yale University); Natalia Rigol (Harvard University); Simone Schaner (University of Southern California); Charity Troyer Moore (MacMillan Center, Yale University)
    Abstract: Can greater control over earned income incentivize women to work and influence gender norms? In collaboration with Indian government partners, we provided rural women with individual bank accounts and randomly varied whether their wages from a public workfare program were directly deposited into these accounts or into the male household head’s account (the status quo). Women in a random subset of villages were also trained on account use. In the short run, relative to women just offered bank accounts, those who also received direct deposit and training increased their labor supply in the public and private sectors. In the long run, gender norms liberalized: women who received direct deposit and training became more accepting of female work, and their husbands perceived fewer social costs to having a wife who works. These effects were concentrated in households with otherwise lower levels of, and stronger norms against, female work. Women in these households also worked more in the long run and became more empowered. These patterns are consistent with models of household decisionmaking in which increases in bargaining power from greater control over income interact with, and influence, gender norms.
    Date: 2019–09
  4. By: Jessica Nisén (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Maarten J. Bijlsma (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Pekka Martikainen (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Ben Wilson; Mikko Myrskylä (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: Later parenthood is often beneficial for women, but less is known about its impact on men. As first births continue to occur later in life, it is important to understand whether this delay influences the educational and labor market outcomes of women and men differently, and how it changes the socioeconomic characteristics of children’s parents at birth. However, education, employment, and fertility are linked, implying that complex models are required in order to analyze the time-varying impacts of delayed parenthood. We use dynamic longitudinal models and Finnish data to analyze how, and through which socioeconomic mechanisms, a material delay in parenthood is likely to influence educational and labor market outcomes over young adulthood. A three-year delay in young-adult parenthood for all women increases educational enrollment in their early 20s, employment in their late 20s, and partly due to higher education income in their 30s. The impact of the same delay for men is more modest, and almost negligible for their employment, suggesting that later parenthood exacerbates the educational advantage of women and attenuates the income advantage of men. However, it strengthens the socioeconomic standing of both men and women when they become parents, essentially due to the accumulation of effects.
    Keywords: Finland, education, gender, labor market, longitudinal analysis, parenthood
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2019–09

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