nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒08‒12
three papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. What Firms Do: Gender Inequality in Linked Employer-Employee Data By Casarico, A.; Lattanzio, S.
  2. Can gender quotas prevent risky choice shifts? The effect of gender composition on group decisions under risk By Lima de Miranda, Katharina; Detlefsen, Lena; Schmidt, Ulrich
  3. The impact women's leadership in local Governments: The case of Spain By Maria Teresa Balaguer-Coll; Mariya Ivanova-Toneva

  1. By: Casarico, A.; Lattanzio, S.
    Abstract: This paper investigates the contribution of firms to the gender gap in earnings on average, at different quantiles of the earnings distribution, and over time to shed light on the role of firm pay policies in hindering or reinforcing the gender wage gap and to identify how their impact comes about. Using a linked employer-employee dataset for Italy, we show that the gap in firm pay policies explains on average 30% of the gender pay gap in the period 1995-2015. Sorting of women in low pay firms explains a larger fraction of the gender pay gap than differences in bargaining, on average and at the bottom of the distribution, whereas the latter dominates at the top. Moreover, differences in bargaining have increased in importance over the two decades. To explain sorting, we investigate whether women have a lower probability of moving towards firms with higher pay rates, and find that this is indeed the case. This differential mobility penalises, in particular, highly skilled women and can be related to the variability in wages in destination firms, with women not moving to those with high (unexplained) variance in pay. We also find some evidence that the firm environment as captured by exogenous changes in the gender balance in leadership positions influences the bargaining power of women, indicating that the latter is partly institution-driven.
    Keywords: Bargaining, Sorting, Linked Employer-Employee Data, Mobility gap, Gender quotas
    JEL: J16 J31 J71
    Date: 2019–07–09
  2. By: Lima de Miranda, Katharina; Detlefsen, Lena; Schmidt, Ulrich
    Abstract: This study contributes to the public debate on gender quotas and the literature on gender and risk taking by analysing how the level of risk taking within a group is influenced by its gender composition. In particular we look at the shift of risk taking between group and individual decisions and analyse to which extent this shift depends on the gender composition. We derive a gender-specific polarization hypothesis which states that compared to individual preferences, male dominated groups will shift towards higher risk taking than female dominated ones. Our experimental tests reveal a systematic impact of gender composition on group shifts which supports our hypothesis and points into the direction that a higher share of females may prevent excessive risk taking.
    Keywords: risky shift,risk taking,group decisions,gender,monetary incentives
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Maria Teresa Balaguer-Coll (Department of Finance and Accounting, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain); Mariya Ivanova-Toneva (Department of Finance and Accounting, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain)
    Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to analyse whether the gender of the mayor and the municipal council members affects compliance with the principles of budgetary stability and financial sustainability contained in Organic Law 2/2012 on Budgetary Stability and Financial sustainability. We find that in Spanish local governments during the period 2013–2016, the leadership of women mayors contributes to improving the financial situation of the local government. In particular, the presence of women mayors governing with a high proportion of female councillors increases the probability of compliance with regulations on budgetary stability, financial sustainability and the legal debt limit. Thus, the Law for Effective Equality of Women and Men favours compliance with the Law on Budgetary Stability and Financial Sustainability. In addition, the results show that in pre electoral periods, women mayors are less likely to employ strategies designed to enhance their re election chances.
    Keywords: women mayors, gender quotas, budgetary stability, financial sustainability, law, municipalities
    JEL: H70 H74 J16
    Date: 2019

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