nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒07‒29
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender gaps in the evaluation of research: evidence from submissions to economics conferences By Laura Hospido; Carlos Sanz
  2. Occupational Achievements of Same-Sex Couples in the U.S. by Gender and Race By Coral del Río; Olga Alonso-Villar
  3. High-Performing Peers and Female STEM Choices in School By Mouganie, Pierre; Wang, Yaojing
  4. Early Education and Gender Differences By Daniela Del Boca; Enrica Maria Martino; Elena Claudia Meroni; Daniela Piazzalunga

  1. By: Laura Hospido (Banco de España and IZA); Carlos Sanz (Banco de España)
    Abstract: We study gender differences in the evaluation of submissions to economics conferences. Using data from the Annual Congress of the European Economic Association (2015-2017), the Annual Meeting of the Spanish Economic Association (2012-2017), and the Spring Meeting of Young Economists (2017), we find that all-female-authored papers are 3.2 p.p. (6.8%) less likely to be accepted than all-male-authored papers. This gap is present after controlling for (i) number of authors, (ii) referee fixed effects, (iii) field, (iv) cites of the paper at submission year, (v) previous publication record of the authors, and (vi) the quality of the affiliations of the authors. We also find that the gap is entirely driven by male referees—female referees evaluate male and female-authored papers similarly, but male referees are more favorable towards papers written by men.
    Keywords: gender, economics profession, academic labor market
    JEL: A1 J16
    Date: 2019–07
  2. By: Coral del Río; Olga Alonso-Villar
    Abstract: Using the 2010-2014 5-year sample of the American Community Survey, this paper investigates the roles that sexual orientation, gender, and race/ethnicity play in explaining occupational achievements and earnings. By combining the approach of Del Río and Alonso-Villar (2015) with the counterfactual method of DiNardo et al. (1996) and Gradín (2013), the authors offer a framework that allows for the simultaneous comparison of all sexual orientation–gender–race/ethnicity groups whereas controlling for characteristics. The analysis suggests that occupations matter in explaining earnings differences among groups. The sexual orientation wage premium of lesbians is quite small for blacks and much higher for Hispanics and Asians than for whites. The high magnitude of the gender wage gap in an intersectional framework is also displayed. For men, departing from the white heterosexual model involves a substantial punishment; the racial penalty is larger for heterosexuals whereas the sexual orientation penalty is greater for whites.
    Keywords: Sexual orientation; gender; race; occupational segregation; wage penalty
    JEL: D63 I31 J15 J16
    Date: 2019–01
  3. By: Mouganie, Pierre (American University of Beirut); Wang, Yaojing (Peking University)
    Abstract: Women have historically been underrepresented in STEM majors and occupations, a gap that has persisted over time. There are concerns that this is related to academic choices made at an earlier age. The purpose of this paper is to examine how social environment affects women's STEM choices as early as high school. Using administrative data from China, we find that exposure to high-performing female peers in mathematics increases the likelihood that women choose a science track during high school, while more high-performing males decrease this likelihood. We also find that peer quality has persistent effects on college outcomes. Overall, there is little evidence of peer effects for boys. Our results suggest that girls doing well in mathematics provide an affirmation effect that encourages female classmates to pursue a STEM track.
    Keywords: STEM, peer quality, gender peer effects, China
    JEL: I21 I24 J24
    Date: 2019–06
  4. By: Daniela Del Boca; Enrica Maria Martino; Elena Claudia Meroni; Daniela Piazzalunga
    Abstract: A rich strand of the economic literature has been studying the impact of different forms of early childcare on children cognitive and non-cognitive development in the short and medium run, and on a number of educational, labor market, and life outcomes in the long run. These studies agree in assessing the importance of the first years of life on future outcomes, and identify early childhood interventions as a powerful policy instrument to boost child development. Furthermore, most research agrees in identifying stronger beneficial effects among children from disadvantaged backgrounds, making a case for the role of childcare policies in reducing inequality. Instead, heterogeneity of results across gender is less clear-cut. Yet, it is important to understand how childcare arrangements differently affect boys and girls, to figure out how to boost cognitive and non-cognitive development of young children and how to reduce gender gaps later in life. Our paper offers a comprehensive review of the literature on early childcare impacts, shedding light on the heterogeneous effects across genders, considering the role of institutional background, type of the intervention, and age of the child. We also present some empirical results on the Italian case which indicates that gender differences in the outcomes is lower among children who attended an impact toddler center, while it is higher and more often statistically significant for those who received informal care. This result confirms the positive and equalizing role of early public childcare.
    Keywords: childcare, child development, cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills, gender differences
    Date: 2019

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