nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒07‒22
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender Quotas in the Boardroom: New Evidence from Germany By Alexandra Fedorets; Anna Gibert; Norma Burow
  2. What drives the gender wage gap? Examining the roles of sorting, productivity differences, and discrimination. By Sin, Isabelle; Stillman, Steven; Fabling, Richard
  3. Societal Inequalities Amplify Gender Gaps in Math By Breda, Thomas; Jouini, Elyès; Napp, Clotilde
  4. Upstreamness, Wages and Gender: Equal Benefits for All? By Gagliardi, Nicola; Mahy, Benoît; Rycx, Francois
  5. Publication, Compensation, and the Public Affairs Discount: Does Gender Play a Role? By Taylor, Lori L.; Cortes, Kalena E.; Hearn, Travis C.

  1. By: Alexandra Fedorets; Anna Gibert; Norma Burow
    Abstract: We examine the introduction of a gender quota law in Germany, mandating a minimum 30% of the underrepresented gender on the supervisory boards of a particular type of firms. We exploit the fact that Germany has a two-tier corporate system consisting of the affected supervisory boards and unaffected management boards within the same firm. We find a positive effect on the female share on supervisory boards of affected firms, but no effect on presidency of the board or its size. We also study whether the increased female representation has had an effect on the financial performance of the firm and conclude that, unlike some previous studies in other countries, there has not been any negative effect on the profitability of the firm, neither at the time when the law was announced nor when it was passed.
    Keywords: Gender quota, Economics of gender, Labor discrimination, Personnel economics, Firm performance
    JEL: J78 J16 M51 L25
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Sin, Isabelle; Stillman, Steven; Fabling, Richard
    Abstract: As in other OECD countries, women in New Zealand earn substantially less than men with similar observable characteristics. In this paper, we use a decade of annual wage and productivity data from New Zealand’s Linked Employer-Employee Database to examine different explanations for this gender wage gap. Sorting by gender at either the industry or firm level explains less than one-fifth of the overall wage gap. Gender differences in productivity within firms also explain little of the difference seen in wages. The relationships between the gender wage-productivity gap and both age and tenure are inconsistent with statistical discrimination being an important explanatory factor for the remaining differences in wages. Relating across industry and over time variation in the gender wage-productivity gap to industry-year variation in worker skills, and product market and labour market competition, we find evidence that is consistent with taste discrimination being important for explaining the overall gender wage gap. Explanations based on gender differences in bargaining power are less consistent with our findings.
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2017–08
  3. By: Breda, Thomas (Paris School of Economics); Jouini, Elyès (Université Paris-Dauphine); Napp, Clotilde (CNRS)
    Abstract: While gender gaps in average math performance are close to zero in developed countries, women are still strongly underrepresented among math high performers. Using data from five successive waves of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), we show that this underrepresentation is more severe in more unequal countries. This relationship holds for a wide range of societal inequalities that are not directly related to gender. It is also observed in other parts of the performance distribution and among various sets of countries, including developing countries. Similar relationships are found in science and reading. Such findings highlight how differences in socio-economic and cultural factors can affect gender gaps in performance.
    Keywords: gender gap in math, culture, societal inequality, income inequality, top math performers
    JEL: I24 J16 Z1
    Date: 2019–06
  4. By: Gagliardi, Nicola (Free University of Brussels); Mahy, Benoît (University of Mons); Rycx, Francois (Free University of Brussels)
    Abstract: This paper provides first evidence on the impact of a direct measure of firm-level upstreamness (i.e. the steps before the production of a firm meets final demand) on workers' wages. It also investigates whether results vary along the earnings distribution and by gender. Findings, based on unique matched employer-employee data relative to the Belgian manufacturing industry for the period 2002-2010, show that workers earn significantly higher wages when employed in more upstream firms. Yet, the gains from upstreamness are found to be very unequally shared among workers. Unconditional quantile estimates suggest that male top-earners are the main beneficiaries, whereas women, irrespective of their earnings, appear to be unfairly rewarded. Quantile decompositions further show that these differences in wage premia account for a substantial part of the gender wage gap, especially at the top of the earnings' distribution.
    Keywords: upstreamness, global value chains, wages, gender
    JEL: J16 J31
    Date: 2019–06
  5. By: Taylor, Lori L. (Texas A&M University); Cortes, Kalena E. (Texas A&M University); Hearn, Travis C. (Texas A&M University)
    Abstract: This paper presents on three new styled facts: first, schools of public affairs hire many economists; second, those economists are disproportionately female; and third, salaries in schools of public affairs are, on average, lower than salaries in mainline departments of economics. We seek to understand the linkage, if any, among these facts. We assembled a unique database of over 2,150 faculty salary profiles from the top 50 Schools of Public Affairs in the United States as well as the corresponding Economics and Political Science departments. For each faculty member we obtained salary data to analyze the relationship between scholarly discipline, department placement, gender, and annual salary compensation. We found substantial pay differences based on departmental affiliation, significant differences in citation records between male and female faculty in schools of public affairs, and no evidence that the public affairs discount could be explained by compositional differences with respect to gender, experience or scholarly citations.
    Keywords: hedonic wage models, faculty sorting, compensating differentials
    JEL: J01 J16 J30 J31
    Date: 2019–06

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