nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒07‒15
twelve papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. The Gender Pay Gap in the US: A Matching Study By Meara, Katie; Pastore, Francesco; Webster, Allan
  2. The gender gap in informal child care: theory and some evidence from Italy By Barigozzi, Francesca; Cremer, Helmuth; Monfardini, Chiara
  3. Persistency in Teachers’ Grading Bias and Effects on Longer-Term Outcomes: University Admissions Exams and Choice of Field of Study By Victor Lavy; Rigissa Megalokonomou
  4. Mothers, Peers and Gender-Role Identity By Olivetti, Claudia; Patacchini, Eleonora; Zenou, Yves
  5. Networking Frictions in Venture Capital, and the Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship By Sabrina T. Howell; Ramana Nanda
  6. Transitioning Towards More Equality? Wealth Gender Differences and the Changing Role of Explanatory Factors over Time By Sierminska, Eva; Piazzalunga, Daniela; Grabka, Markus M.
  7. Education and Gender Differences in Mortality Rates By Cristina Bellés-Obrero; Sergi Jiménez-Martín; Judit Vall Castello
  8. The evaluation of gender income inequality by means of the Gini index decomposition By M. Costa
  9. The Long-Term Impacts of Girl-Friendly Schools: Evidence from the BRIGHT School Construction Program in Burkina Faso By Nicholas Ingwersen; Harounan Kazianga; Leigh L. Linden; Arif Mamun; Ali Protik; Matt Sloan
  10. Publication, Compensation, and the Public Affairs Discount: Does Gender Play a Role? By Lori L. Taylor; Kalena E. Cortes; Travis C. Hearn
  11. The Medium-Term Impacts of Girl-Friendly Schools: Seven-Year Evidence from School Construction in Burkina Faso By Harounan Kazianga; Leigh L. Linden; Ali Protik; Matthew Sloan
  12. Gender Identity and Relative Income within Households-Evidence from Sweden By Hederos, Karin; Stenberg, Anders

  1. By: Meara, Katie; Pastore, Francesco; Webster, Allan
    Abstract: This study examines the gender wage gap in the US using two separate cross-sections from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The extensive literature on this subject includes papers which use wage decompositions to divide gender wag gaps into “explained” and “unexplained” components. Problems with this approach include the heterogeneity of the sample data. In order to address the difficulties of comparing like with like this study uses a number of different matching techniques to obtain estimates of the gap. By controlling for a wide range of other influences, in effect, we estimate the direct effect of simply being female on wages. However, to form a complete picture, one should consider that gender wages are affected by a number of other factors such as parenthood, gender segregation, part-time working and unionization. This means that it is not just the core “like for like” comparison between male and female wages that matters but also how gender wage differences interact with other relevant risk factors which are more common for women. That these interactions exist has already been discussed in the literature but evidence that precisely or systematically estimates such effects remains scarce. The most innovative contribution of this study is to do that. Our findings imply that the idea of a single uniform gender pay gap is perhaps less useful than an understanding of how gender wages are shaped by multiple different forces.
    Keywords: gender pay,Current Population Survey,part-time working,gender segregation,unionization,sample selection bias,matching,IPWRA,USA
    JEL: C31 J16 J31
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Barigozzi, Francesca; Cremer, Helmuth; Monfardini, Chiara
    Abstract: Our model studies couples' time allocation and career choices, which are affected by a social norm on gender roles in the family. Parents can provide two types of informal child care: basic care (feeding, changing children, baby-sitting) and quality care (activities that stimulate children's social and cognitive skills). We obtain the following main results. Traditional mothers provide some informal basic care, whereas career mothers purchase full time formal basic care in the market. Informal basic care is too large and the group of career mothers is too small because of the social norm. Informal quality care is increasing in the couple's income and is provided in larger amount by mothers. We test the model's predictions for Italy using the most recent ISTAT "Use of Time" survey. In line with the model, mothers devote more time than fathers to both basic and quality informal care; more educated parents devote more time to quality informal care than less educated parents; more educated mothers spend more time in the labor market than less educated mothers.
    Keywords: basic and quality child care; gender gaps; Social norms; women's career choices
    JEL: D13 H23 J16 J22
    Date: 2019–06
  3. By: Victor Lavy; Rigissa Megalokonomou
    Abstract: Recent research has focused on what shapes gender differences in academic achievement and students’ choice of university field of study. In this paper we examine how teachers’ gender role attitudes and stereotypes influence the gender gap by affecting the school environment. We explore the extent to which teachers’ gender bias in high school influences students’ school attendance and academic performance in high-stakes university admission exams and students’ choice of university field of study. We use data from a large number of high schools in Greece, where the performance in these high-stakes exams determines university admission. We measure teachers’ bias as the difference between a high school student’s school exam score and national exam score. We then define a teacher bias measure at the class level by the difference between boys’ and girls’ average gap between the school score and the national score. We link teachers over time to obtain a persistent teacher bias measure based on multiple classes, and to estimate the effect for later cohorts’ performance. We find a very high correlation of within-teacher gender biases measured in different classes, which reveals high persistency in teachers’ gender favoritism behavior. We then find substantial effects of these teacher biases on students’ school attendance and performance in university admission exams, quality of enrolled degree and the given field of study at the university. We also find that gender biases are more prevalent among low value added teachers, while the more effective teachers have an approximately neutral gender attitude. This suggests that less effective teachers can harm their students twice, by being a bad teacher and by discriminating against one of the genders.
    JEL: I24 J16 J24
    Date: 2019–06
  4. By: Olivetti, Claudia (Boston College and NBER); Patacchini, Eleonora (Cornell University, USA); Zenou, Yves (Monach University)
    Abstract: We study whether a woman's labor supply as a young adult is shaped by the work behavior of her adolescent peers' mothers. Using detailed information on a sample of U.S. teenagers who are followed over time, we find that labor force participation of high school peers' mothers affects adult women's labor force participation, above and beyond the effect of their own mothers. The analysis suggests that women who were exposed to a larger number of working mothers during adolescence are less likely to feel that work interferes with family responsibilities. This perception, in turn, is important for whether they work when they have children.
    Keywords: Role models; Identity; Female labor supply; Peer effects; Workfamily conflict
    JEL: J22 Z13
    Date: 2019–07–04
  5. By: Sabrina T. Howell (New York University); Ramana Nanda (Harvard Business School, Entrepreneurial Management Unit)
    Abstract: Exploiting random assignment of judges to panels at Harvard Business School's New Venture Competition (NVC) between 2000 and 2015, we find that exposure to more venture capitalist (VC) judges increases male participants' chances of starting a VC-backed startup after HBS much more than this exposure increases female participants' chances. A survey suggests this is in part because male participants more often proactively reach out to VC judges after the NVC. Our results suggest that networking frictions are an important reason men benefit more than women from exposure to VCs. Such frictions can help explain part of the gender gap in entrepreneurship, and also have implications for how to design networking opportunities to facilitate financing of the best (rather than just the best networked) ideas.
    Date: 2019–04
  6. By: Sierminska, Eva (LISER (CEPS/INSTEAD)); Piazzalunga, Daniela (FBK-IRVAPP); Grabka, Markus M. (DIW Berlin)
    Abstract: The objective of the study is to investigate the changing role of explanatory factors of wealth and the gender wealth gap in Germany over the period 2002-2012 using individual level microdata from the German Socio-Economic Panel. The authors apply distributional decomposition methods and focus on the role of changes in labor supply, permanent income, portfolio composition, and marital status in this process. Results show that real mean wealth levels for the working age population have been decreasing for both women and men since 2002 and that the wealth gap has decreased by 13.5% to 30.700€. The growing labor market participation of women and the resulting occupational structure has a positive effect on women's wealth accumulation. In comparison to previous analyses, the authors use the panel dimension of the data and find that the role of permanent income is decreasing due to a reduction in the gender difference in permanent income and in gender differences in its returns.
    Keywords: decomposition analysis, SOEP, gender, wealth differences
    JEL: D31 D13
    Date: 2019–06
  7. By: Cristina Bellés-Obrero; Sergi Jiménez-Martín; Judit Vall Castello
    Abstract: We examine the gender asymmetries in mortality generated by a Spanish reform raising the legal working age from 14 to 16 in 1980. While the reform, though its effects on education, decreased mortality at ages 14-29 among men (6.3%) and women (8.9%), it increased mortality for prime-age women (30-45) by 6.3%. This last effect is driven by increases in HIV mortality, as well as by diseases of the nervous and circulatory system. All in all, these patterns help explain the narrowing age gap in life expectancy between women and men in Spain.
    Keywords: minimum working age, education, mortality, gender
    JEL: I12 I20 J10
    Date: 2019–07
  8. By: M. Costa
    Abstract: This paper proposes to measure and to evaluate gender gaps and gender inequalities by means of the decomposition of an inequality measure. A three-terms decomposition of the Gini index is applied, thus allowing to take into account also the role of overlapping between female and male subpopulations. We develop an unified framework for the evaluation of gender gap, linking traditional measures, based on subgroups income means, to the approach related to inequality decomposition, and showing how overlapping component represents a key issue in gender gap analysis. An analysis of the income distribution of the Italian households shows how gender gaps represent a major source of inequality, without particular improvements during the last 20 years.
    JEL: D63 J1 J7
    Date: 2019–07
  9. By: Nicholas Ingwersen (Mathematica Policy Research); Harounan Kazianga (Oklahoma State University, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano); Leigh L. Linden (The University of Texas at Austin, BREAD, IPA, IZA, J-PAL, NBER); Arif Mamun (Mathematica Policy Research); Ali Protik (NORC at the University of Chicago); Matt Sloan (Mathematica Policy Research)
    Abstract: We evaluate the long-term effects of a "girl-friendly" primary school program in Burkina Faso, using a regression discontinuity design. Ten years later, primary school-age children in villages selected for the program attend school more often and score significantly higher on standardized tests. We also find long-term effects on academic and social outcomes for children exposed earlier in the program. Secondary-school-age youths and young adults (those old enough to have finished secondary school) complete primary and secondary school at higher rates and perform significantly better on standardized tests. Women old enough to have completed secondary school delay both marriage and childbearing.
    Keywords: Africa, Education, Gender Inequality, Infrastructures
    JEL: I24 I25 I28 O15
    Date: 2019–07–02
  10. By: Lori L. Taylor; Kalena E. Cortes; Travis C. Hearn
    Abstract: This paper presents on three new styled facts: first, schools of public affairs hire many economists; second, those economists are disproportionately female; and third, salaries in schools of public affairs are, on average, lower than salaries in mainline departments of economics. We seek to understand the linkage, if any, among these facts. We assembled a unique database of over 2,150 faculty salary profiles from the top 50 Schools of Public Affairs in the United States as well as the corresponding Economics and Political Science departments. For each faculty member we obtained salary data to analyze the relationship between scholarly discipline, department placement, gender, and annual salary compensation. We found substantial pay differences based on departmental affiliation, significant differences in citation records between male and female faculty in schools of public affairs, and no evidence that the public affairs discount could be explained by compositional differences with respect to gender, experience or scholarly citations.
    JEL: J01 J16 J30 J31
    Date: 2019–06
  11. By: Harounan Kazianga; Leigh L. Linden; Ali Protik; Matthew Sloan
    Abstract: We evaluate the long-term effect of a “girl-friendly” primary school program in Burkina Faso, using a regression discontinuity design. The intervention consisted of upgrading existing three-classroom schools to six-classroom schools to accommodate more grades. After seven years, the program increased enrollment by 15.5 percentage points and increased test scores by 0.29 standard deviations. Students in treatment schools progress further through the grades, compared to students in non-selected schools. These upgraded schools are effective at getting children into school, getting children to start school on time, and keeping children in school longer. Overall, we find that the schools sustain the large impacts observed about three years earlier, with enrollment declining slightly from 18.5 to 14.9 for the cohorts of children who were exposed to both the first and second phases of the intervention.
    JEL: I24 I25 I28 O15
    Date: 2019–06
  12. By: Hederos, Karin (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University); Stenberg, Anders (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: Bertrand et al. (2015) show that in the U.S.,the distribution of the wife’s share of household income drops sharply at the point where the wife starts to earn more than her husband. They attribute the drop to a gender identity norm prescribing that a wife’s income should not exceed her husband’s income. We document a similar sharp drop in Swedish administrative register data. However, we also show that there is a large spike in the distribution of the wife’s share of household income at the point where spouses earn exactly the same. The wives in the equal-earning couples do not have higher earnings potential than their husbands, suggesting that the spike is not generated by couples seeking to avoid that the wife earns more than her husband. Excluding the equal-earning couples, the drop is small and mostly statistically insignificant. We conclude that, if anything, we find only weak evidence that Swedish couples comply with a norm against wives earning more than their husbands.
    Keywords: Gender roles; gender norms; marriage market; gender gap; gender identity
    JEL: D10 J12 J16
    Date: 2019–06–28

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