nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒06‒17
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Explaining gender gap variation across assessment forms By Graetz, Georg; Karimi, Arizo
  2. Gender Pay Gap Patterns in Domestic and Foreign-Owned Firms By Iga Magda; Katarzyna Sa³ach
  3. Education and gender differences in mortality rates By Cristina Bellés-Obrero; Sergi Jiménez-Martín; Judit Vall Castello
  4. Informality and Gender Gaps Going Hand in Hand By Vivian Malta; Lisa L Kolovich; Angelica Martinez; Marina Mendes Tavares
  5. Economic incentives, home production and gender identity norms By Ichino, Andrea; Olsson, Martin; Petrongolo, Barbara; Skogman Thoursie, Peter

  1. By: Graetz, Georg (Uppsala Center for Labor Studies, Uppsala University); Karimi, Arizo (Department of Economics, Uppsala University)
    Abstract: In Sweden, females outperform males on compulsory and high school GPAs by a third of a standard deviation, while males outperform females on the Swedish SAT by the same magnitude. We establish that GPAs capture different attributes and skills compared to SAT scores. Differences in motivation and effort explain up to 60 percent of the female advantage in GPAs, while cognitive skills explain 40 percent of the male advantage in SAT scores. The latter is accounted for by differential self-selection into taking the SAT. Our findings imply large effects of the choice of university admission criterion on admitted students’characteristics.
    Keywords: gender gaps; student assessment; cognitive skills; non-cognitive skills; university admissions
    JEL: I21 I24 J16
    Date: 2019–05–06
  2. By: Iga Magda; Katarzyna Sa³ach
    Abstract: We investigate differences in gender wage gaps between foreign-owned and domestically-owned firms in Poland, a country that has experienced large FDI inflows over the past three decades. We show that according to standard estimates of adjusted gender wage gaps, these differences are much larger in the foreign-owned companies than in the domestic firms. However, we also find that these estimates cannot be trusted because the domestically-owned firms have considerably higher levels of gender segregation. Using a non parametric matching and decomposition technique (Nopo 2008) we find that gender wage gaps in domestically-owned firms are only slightly smaller than those in foreign-owned companies. Women tend to segregate into low-paid jobs in the domestic sector, whereas foreign-owned companies have much larger within-firm differences in earnings. In sum, we find that the nature of gender wage gaps and the factors that underlie them differ between domestic and foreign-owned companies.
    Keywords: gender wage gaps, domestic ownership, foreign ownership, FDI
    JEL: F23 J16 J31 J71
    Date: 2019–06
  3. By: Cristina Bellés-Obrero; Sergi Jiménez-Martín; Judit Vall Castello
    Abstract: We examine the gender asymmetries in the health benefits of acquiring further education at a time of increasing gender equality and women’s greater access to economic opportunities. A labor market reform in Spain in 1980 raised the minimum legal working age from 14 to 16, while the school-leaving age remained at 14. We apply a difference-in-difference strategy to identify the reform’s within-cohort effects, where treated and control individuals differ only in their month of birth. Although the reform improved the educational attainment of both women and men, the long-term effects over mortality differ by gender. We find that the reform decreased mortality at young ages (14-29) by 6.3% among men and by 8.9% among women. This was driven by a decrease (12.2% for men, 14.7% for women) in the probability of dying from external causes of death (accidents). However, we also find that the child labor reform increased mortality for prime-age women (30-45) by 6.3%. This effect is driven by increases in HIV mortality (11.6%), as well as by diseases of the nervous and circulatory system (8.7%). This pattern helps explain the narrowing age gap in life expectancy between women and men in Spain.
    Keywords: minimum working age, education, mortality, gender
    JEL: I12 I20 J10
    Date: 2019–06
  4. By: Vivian Malta; Lisa L Kolovich; Angelica Martinez; Marina Mendes Tavares
    Abstract: In sub-Saharan Africa women work relatively more in the informal sector than men. Many factors could explain this difference, including women’s lower education levels, legal barriers, social norms and demographic characteristics. Cross-country comparisons indicate strong associations between gender gaps and higher female informality. This paper uses microdata from Senegal to assess the probability of a worker being informal, and our main findings are: (i) in urban areas, being a woman increases this probability by 8.5 percent; (ii) education is usually more relevant for women; (iii) having kids reduces men’s probability of being informal but increases women’s.
    Date: 2019–05–23
  5. By: Ichino, Andrea (European University Institute, U. Bologna and CEPR); Olsson, Martin (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN, Stockholm) and IFAU); Petrongolo, Barbara (Queen Mary University London, CEP (LSE) and CEPR); Skogman Thoursie, Peter (Stockholm University and IFAU)
    Abstract: We infer the role of gender identity norms from the reallocation of childcare across parents, following changes in their relative wages. By exploiting variation from a Swedish tax reform, we estimate the elasticity of substitution in parental childcare for the whole population and for demographic groups potentially adhering to differently binding norms. We find that immigrant, married and male breadwinner couples, as well as couples with a male first-born, react more strongly to tax changes that induce a more traditional allocation of spouses' time, while the respective counterpart couples react more strongly to tax changes that induce a more egalitarian division of labor.
    Keywords: Home production; taxes; gender identity; gender gaps.
    JEL: D13 H24 J22
    Date: 2019–05–29

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