nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒05‒27
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender gaps in wages and mortality rates during industrialization: the case of Alcoy, Spain, 1860-1914 By Pilar Beneito; José Joaquin García-Gómez
  2. How uncertainty and ambiguity in tournaments affect gender differences in competitive behavior By Loukas Balafoutas; Matthias Sutter
  3. Gender Differences in the Influence of Mental Health on Job Retention By Thomas Barnay; Éric Defebvre
  4. Cash transfers, labor supply and gender inequality: Evidence from South Africa By Giorgio d'Agostino; Margherita Scarlato
  5. Gender, Crime and Punishment: Evidence from Women Police Stations in India By Sofia Amaral; Sonia Bhalotra; Nishith Prakash
  6. Ability to Sustain Test Performance and Remedial Education: Good News for Girls By Marianna Battaglia; Marisa Hidalgo Hidalgo
  7. Is Technology Widening the Gender Gap? Automation and the Future of Female Employment By Mariya Brussevich; Era Dabla-Norris; Salma Khalid

  1. By: Pilar Beneito (University of Valencia. ERI-CES); José Joaquin García-Gómez (University of Almeria)
    Abstract: What role did women play during industrialization? Interpretations of this key period of our history have been largely based on analyses of male work. In this paper, we offer evidence of the effects of women's involvement in the industrialization process that took place in Alcoy, Spain, over the period 1860-1914. Using data drawn from historical sources, we analyse labour-force participation rates and wage series for women and men in the textile industry and three other sectors of activity (education, health and low-skill services). We then connect the gender pay gaps with life expectancy indicators. Our results suggest that women's contribution to household income might have favoured the female life-expectancy advantage, an effect that seems to have been channelled through a reduction in the relative mortality rates of female infants and girls, at the expense of a higher mortality rate of working-age women.
    Keywords: Industrialization, gender wage gap, female mortality advantage
    JEL: J16 J31 N33 O14
    Date: 2019–05
  2. By: Loukas Balafoutas (University of Innsbruck); Matthias Sutter (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Bonn)
    Abstract: Tournament incentives prevail in labor markets. Yet, the number of tournament winners is often unclear to competitors. While it is hard to measure how this uncertainty affects work performance and willingness to compete in the field, it can be studied in a controlled lab experiment. We present a novel experiment where subjects can compete against each other, but the number of winners is either uncertain (but with known probabilities) or ambiguous (with unknown probabilities for different numbers of winners). We compare these two conditions to a control treatment with a known number of winners. We find that ambiguity induces a significant increase in the performance of men who choose to compete, while we observe no change for women. Men also increase their willingness to enter competition in the presence of ambiguity. Overall, both effects contribute to men winning the tournament significantly more often than women under uncertainty and ambiguity. These findings suggest that management should make tournament conditions transparent and information available in order to prevent gender disparities from increasing under uncertainty and ambiguity.
    Keywords: Gender, competition, uncertainty, ambiguity, experiment
    JEL: C91 D03
    Date: 2019–05
  3. By: Thomas Barnay (ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12 - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée, TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Éric Defebvre (TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: We measure gender differences in the causal impact of the 2006 self-assessed mental health status (anxiety disorders and depressive episodes) on job retention in 2010. We use data from the French Health and Professional Career Path survey. To control for endogeneity biases, we use bivariate probit models to simultaneously explain employment status and mental health. Anxiety disorders reduce men's job retention capacity by up to 12 percentage points (pp). Depressive episodes affect both genders almost equally (around 11pp). More severe cases of both mental health conditions are relevant in determining the capacity of individuals to remain in employment.
    Keywords: Mental health,Employment,Instrumental variables,Gender differences,France
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Giorgio d'Agostino; Margherita Scarlato
    Abstract: This paper provides an empirical analysis of the impact of the Child Support Grant (CSG)implemented in South Africa on the labor supply of the parents of beneficiary children. Ouraim is to assess, by evaluating potential heterogeneity of the effects by gender, whether and towhat extent the program improved or lessened gender inequality in the labor market. We usedata from a national panel survey, the National Income Dynamics Study, and apply a fuzzyregression discontinuity design that exploits an expansion in eligibility due to a discontinuouschange in the age eligibility criterion. The results show that the CSG had a negative effecton the probability of parents of beneficiary children being employed and mixed effects onthe participation in the labor force, with substantial heterogeneity by gender and by otherindividual and household characteristics. Overall, the evaluation suggests that the programprovided support to the members of vulnerable household in coping with the constraints ofthe South African labor market, but it did not serve to reshape existing gender inequalities
    Date: 2019–05
  5. By: Sofia Amaral (ifo Institute and CESifo); Sonia Bhalotra (ISER - University of Essex); Nishith Prakash (University of Connecticut)
    Abstract: We study the impact of an innovative policy intervention in India that led to a rapid expansion in ‘all women police stations’ across cities in India on reported crime against women and deterrence. Using an identification strategy that exploits the staggered implementation of women police stations across cities and nationally representative data on various measures of crime and deterrence, we find that the opening of police stations increased reported crime against women by 22 percent. This is due to increases in reports of female kidnappings and domestic violence. In contrast, reports of genderspecific mortality, self-reported intimate-partner violence and other non-gender specific crimes remain unchanged. We also show that victims move away from reporting crimes in general stations and that self-reported use of support services increased in affected areas. The implementation of women police stations also led to marginal improvements in measures of police deterrence such as arrest rates.
    Keywords: Women police station, Crime against women, Women in policing, India, Pro-active behaviour
    Date: 2019–04
  6. By: Marianna Battaglia (Dpto. Fundamentos del Análisis Económico); Marisa Hidalgo Hidalgo (Universidad de Alicante)
    Abstract: Growing evidence shows that skills other than cognitive are crucial to understand labor market and other outcomes in life and that these skills are more malleable than the cognitive ones at later ages. However, little is known about the role of education in improving these abilities for disadvantaged teenagers in developed countries. In this paper we address two questions: (i) Can educational interventions aimed at teenagers improve skills other than cognitive? (ii) Can we expect heterogeneous e¿ects depending on the students’ gender? We take advantage of a remedial education program for under-performing students implemented in Spain between 2005 and 2012, and, following recent literature, we consider testing and survey behaviors as measures of non-cognitive skills. We use external evaluations of the schools (PISA 2012) and exploit the variation in the question ordering of the test to compute students’ ability to sustain performance throughout it. We ¿nd that the program had a positive e¿ect on girls’ ability to sustain test performance but no impact for boys.
    Keywords: remedial education, test performance, program evaluation, PISA
    JEL: H52 I23 I28 J24
    Date: 2019–05
  7. By: Mariya Brussevich; Era Dabla-Norris; Salma Khalid
    Abstract: Using individual level data on task composition at work for 30 advanced and emerging economies, we find that women, on average, perform more routine tasks than men?tasks that are more prone to automation. To quantify the impact on jobs, we relate data on task composition at work to occupation level estimates of probability of automation, controlling for a rich set of individual characteristics (e.g., education, age, literacy and numeracy skills). Our results indicate that female workers are at a significantly higher risk for displacement by automation than male workers, with 11 percent of the female workforce at high risk of being automated given the current state of technology, albeit with significant cross-country heterogeneity. The probability of automation is lower for younger cohorts of women, and for those in managerial positions.
    Date: 2019–05–06

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