nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒05‒20
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Works Councils and Organizational Gender Policies in Germany By Jirjahn, Uwe; Mohrenweiser, Jens
  2. Illusion of gender parity in education: Intrahousehold resource allocation in Bangladesh By Xu, Sijia; Shonchoy, Abu S.; Fujii, Tomoki
  3. When the opportunity knocks: large structural shocks and gender wage gaps By Joanna Tyrowicz; Lucas van der Velde
  4. Why do women earn more than men in some regions? : Explaining regional differences in the gender pay gap in Germany By Fuchs, Michaela; Rossen, Anja; Weyh, Antje; Wydra-Somaggio, Gabriele
  5. Baby gap: Does more education make for less children? By Westphal, Matthias; Kamhöfer, Daniel A.
  6. Pay Transparency and the Gender Gap By Michael Baker; Yosh Halberstam; Kory Kroft; Alexandre Mas; Derek Messacar
  7. Collaboration, Alphabetical Order and Gender Discrimination. Evidence from the Lab By Wiborg, Vegard Sjurseike; Brekke, Kjell Arne; Nyborg, Karine

  1. By: Jirjahn, Uwe; Mohrenweiser, Jens
    Abstract: While education and labor force participation of women have been increased, there is still a substantial gender gap in labor market opportunities. This gives rise to the question of what factors lead employers to promote work-family balance and gender equality. We address this question by examining the influence of works councils on the gender policies of establishments in Germany. Using data of the IAB Establishment Panel, we find that the incidence of a works council is associated with an increased likelihood that an establishment provides family-friendly practices and promotes equal opportunities of men and women. This finding also holds in a recursive multivariate probit model that accounts for potential endogeneity of works council incidence.
    Keywords: Non-union employee representation,works councils,gender equality,work-family balance,equal opportunities,organizational gender policies
    JEL: J13 J16 J52 J53
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Xu, Sijia (National University of Singapore); Shonchoy, Abu S. (Florida International University); Fujii, Tomoki (Singapore Management University)
    Abstract: A target in the Millennium Development Goals—gender parity in all levels of education—is widely considered to have been attained. However, measuring gender parity only through school enrollment is misleading, as girls may lag behind boys in other educational measures. We investigate this with four rounds of surveys from Bangladesh by decomposing households’ education decisions into enrollment, education expenditure, and share of the education expenditure allocated for the quality of education like private tutoring. We find a strong profemale bias in school enrollment but promale bias in the other two decisions. This contradirectional gender bias is unique to Bangladesh and partly explained by the presence of conditional cash transfer programs. Although these programs promoted girls’ enrollment in secondary schools, they were largely ineffective in narrowing the gender gaps in academic performance and intrahousehold allocation of education resources. Gender parity in education cannot be truly achieved without addressing these gaps.
    Keywords: Female Stipend Programs; Education; Conditional cash transfer; Private tutoring; Bangladesh
    JEL: I28 J16 O15
    Date: 2019–04–26
  3. By: Joanna Tyrowicz (FAME|GRAPE, IAAEU, University of Warsaw and IZA); Lucas van der Velde
    Abstract: Undergoing a large structural shock, labor markets may become less inclusive. We test for this thesis analyzing the behavior of adjusted gender wage gaps in a wide selection of transition countries. We estimate comparable measures of adjusted gender wage gaps for a comprehensive selection of transition countries over a period spanning nearly three decades. We combine these estimates with measures of labor market reallocation in transition economies. We identify the episodes of particularly large labor market reallocations and observe the behavior of the gender wage gaps subsequent these episodes, and exploit the discontinuity between the cohorts participating in the labor market prior to the onset of transition and cohorts of subsequent entrants. Our analysis reveals a distinctive role played by separations from the state-owned manufacturing firms, leading to greater adjusted gender wage gaps. In the medium run the adverse effects of separation hikes from this sector are even more pronounced.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, transition, non-parametric estimates, worker flows
    JEL: C24 J22 J31 J71
    Date: 2019–02
  4. By: Fuchs, Michaela (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Rossen, Anja (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Weyh, Antje (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Wydra-Somaggio, Gabriele (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "This paper provides first-time evidence on the magnitude and determinants of regional differences in the gender pay gap (GPG) in Germany. Using a comprehensive data set of all full-time employees, we conduct Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions for Germany and its regions to explain the regional variation of the GPG with theory-based individual, job-related and regional characteristics. Our results provide several novel insights into the regional dimension of the GPG. First, men's wages are more strongly correlated with the regional GPG than those of women, indicating that their wages drive the regional variation in the GPG much more than the wages of women. Second, the decomposition results reveal pronounced differences in the impact of the individual and job-related characteristics between the regions. Whereas job-related characteristics are important in regions with a high GPG, individual characteristics rather come into play in regions with a low or negative GPG. The results underscore the role played by the establishment composition in a region and the kind of jobs provided for the regional GPG. Women earn more than men in regions with a weak local economic structure and the absence of large firms providing well-paid manufacturing jobs. In regions with a high GPG, in contrast, men usually benefit from such jobs. The third result relates to the validity of the theoretical determinants of the GPG in regional respect. In contrast to the clear-cut decomposition results at the national level, at the regional level their validity mainly applies to specific subsets of regions. We conclude that analyses at the national level come too short in precisely explaining the regional variation of the GPG." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Lohnunterschied, erwerbstätige Frauen, erwerbstätige Männer, Vollzeitarbeit, sozialversicherungspflichtige Arbeitnehmer, regionale Disparität, regionaler Vergleich, Landkreis, Wirtschaftsstruktur, geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren
    JEL: J31 R23 J16
    Date: 2019–04–24
  5. By: Westphal, Matthias; Kamhöfer, Daniel A.
    Abstract: Female college graduates are less likely to bear children but once a mother, they have more children than non-college graduates. - RWI presents first evidence on why college educated women have less children than women who did not go to college. While tertiary education has a direct negative impact on women's probability to become a mother, college educated mothers bear more children than noncollege educated mothers. Career disadvantages might discourage highly educated women from having children. More flexible working hours and means-tested maternal leave benefits could reduce the baby gap.
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Michael Baker; Yosh Halberstam; Kory Kroft; Alexandre Mas; Derek Messacar
    Abstract: We examine the impact of public sector salary disclosure laws on university faculty salaries in Canada. The laws, which enable public access to the salaries of individual faculty if they exceed specified thresholds, were introduced in different provinces at different points in time. Using detailed administrative data covering the universe of faculty in Canada and an event-study research design, we document three key findings. First, the disclosure laws reduced salaries on average. Second, the laws reduced the gender pay gap between men and women. Third, the closure of the gender gap is primarily in universities where faculty are unionized.
    JEL: J0 J3 J31
    Date: 2019–05
  7. By: Wiborg, Vegard Sjurseike (Dept. of Economics, University of Oslo); Brekke, Kjell Arne (Dept. of Economics, University of Oslo); Nyborg, Karine (Dept. of Economics, University of Oslo)
    Abstract: If individual abilities are imperfectly observable, statistical discrimination may affect hiring decisions. In our lab experiment, pairs of subjects solve simple mathematical problems. Subjects then hire others to perform similar tasks. Before choosing whom to hire, they receive information about the past scores of pairs, not of individuals. We vary the observability of individuals’ abilities by ordering pair members either according to performance, or alphabetically by nickname. We find no evidence of gender discrimination in either treatment, however, possibly indicating that gender stereotypes are of limited importance in the context of our study.
    Keywords: Discrimination; Collaboration; Alphabetic; Gender
    JEL: A13 C91 D83 J71
    Date: 2019–05–03

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