nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒05‒13
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Distributional changes in the gender wage gap in the post-apartheid South African labour market By Mosomi Jacqueline
  2. Working from home: Heterogeneous effects on hours worked and wages By Arntz, Melanie; Ben Yahmed, Sarra; Berlingieri, Francesco
  3. Does Facial Structure Explain Differences in Students Evaluations of Teaching? The Role of Perceived Dominance By Valentina Paredes; Francisco Pino; David Díaz
  4. Female teachers’ relative wage level in the 1930s and its long-term effects on current views on female labor participation: A case study from Japan By Yamamura, Eiji

  1. By: Mosomi Jacqueline
    Abstract: This paper investigates the evolution of the gender wage gap in South Africa, using the 1993–2015 Post-Apartheid Labour Market Series data set.The changes in the gap are heterogeneous across the wage distribution. There has been a substantial narrowing of the gap at the bottom of the distribution, attributable to the implementation of the minimum wage in low-paying industries However, the median gender wage gap is substantial at 23–35 per cent. This is unexplained by differences in human capital characteristics, and is not declining over time.This implies that wage-employed women in South Africa have better human capital characteristics than men. Contrary to previous literature, the wage gap at the mean narrowed from 40 per cent in 1993 to 16 per cent in 2014. The gap at the 90th percentile declined during 1993–2005, but has expanded in recent years. This is due to a continually expanding unexplained component of the wage gap, which is usually associated with discrimination.
    Keywords: Decomposition,Discrimination,Gender gap,Labour force participation,post-apartheid South Africa,unconditional quantile regression,wage gap
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Arntz, Melanie; Ben Yahmed, Sarra; Berlingieri, Francesco
    Abstract: Working from home (WfH) has become much more common since the early 2000s. We exploit the German Socio-Economic Panel between 1997 and 2014 to investigate how such a work arrangement affects labour market outcomes and life satisfaction. We find that childless employees work an extra hour per week of unpaid overtime and report higher satisfaction after taking up WfH. Among parents, WfH reduces the gender gap in working hours and monthly earnings, as contractual hours increase more among mothers. Hourly wages, however, increase with WfH take-up among fathers, but not among mothers unless they change employer. This points to poorer bargaining outcomes for women compared to men when staying with the same employer. Controlling for selection into paid employment due to changes in unobserved characteristics or preferences does not affect the magnitude of the effects.
    Keywords: working from home,working hours,wages,gender,flexible work arrangements.
    JEL: J2 J31 O33
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Valentina Paredes; Francisco Pino; David Díaz
    Abstract: Dominance is usually viewed as a positive male attribute, but this is not typically the case for women. Using a novel dataset of teacher evaluations in a school of Business and Economics of a selective university, we construct the face width-to-height ratio (fWHR) as a proxy for dominance to assess whether individuals with a higher ratio obtain better student evaluations of teaching. Our results suggest that a higher fWHR is associated with a better evaluation for male faculty, while the opposite is the case for females. These results are not due to differences in teachers’ productivity. Because teacher evaluations are relevant for pay and promotion, this might contribute to the underrepresentation of women in economics.
    Date: 2019–05
  4. By: Yamamura, Eiji
    Abstract: This study analyzes how the historical work status of women contributed to subjective views about female labor participation in Japan. We matched historical and individual-level data. Based on a sample size of almost 10,000, we examined the long-term effect of female teachers’ wage level relative to that of male teachers in the 1930s. We find higher female teachers’ wages in the 1930s leads to positive views about women’s labor participation in 2016; this effect is only observed in the male sample (and not the female sample). By contrast, female teachers’ wages in 2013 did not influence the views in 2016.
    Keywords: Historical wage rate, norm, subjective view, labor participation
    JEL: I25 J16 Z18
    Date: 2019–05–03

This nep-gen issue is ©2019 by Jan Sauermann. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.