nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒05‒06
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Product market competition and gender discrimination By Dudley Cooke; Ana P. Fernandes; Priscila Ferreira
  2. Corruption beyond the glass ceiling: do women entrepreneurs perceive corruption differently? By Rajeev K. Goel; Michael A. Nelson
  3. Wages, Experience and Training of Women over the Lifecycle By Blundell, Richard; Goll, David; Costa Dias, Monica; Meghir, Costas
  4. Gender Differences in Optimism By Bjuggren, Carl Magnus; Elert, Niklas

  1. By: Dudley Cooke (University of Exeter); Ana P. Fernandes (University of Exeter); Priscila Ferreira (University of Minho, NIMA)
    Abstract: This paper presents novel empirical evidence for the prediction from Becker’s (1957) famous theory, that competition will drive discrimination out of the market. We use a comprehensive firm entry deregulation reform in Portugal as a quasi-natural experiment to study the effect of increased product market competition on gender discrimination. We use employer-employee data for the universe of private sector firms and workers, and exploit the staggered implementation of the reform across municipalities for identification. Increased competition following the deregulation reduces the gender pay gap for medium- and high-skill workers but not for the low-skilled. The gender pay gap is also reduced for workers in managerial positions, except for the CEO. We also find that the share of females in managerial positions increased in affected municipalities. Existing evidence has shown that gender discrimination reduces output; our findings suggest that deregulation can contribute to reduce inefficiencies arising from gender discrimination.
    Keywords: Deregulation, Discrimination, Entry, Gender Pay Gap, Product Market Competition, Wage Structure.
    JEL: J16 J31 J71
    Date: 2018–05
  2. By: Rajeev K. Goel; Michael A. Nelson
    Abstract: Adding to the corruption-gender nexus, this paper contributes across several dimensions: (a) measurement of corruption by studying whether female managers and female owners of firms perceived corruption differently; (b) using survey information at the firm level; and (c) employing a large sample of more than 100 countries. Results show that both female managers and female owners perceived corruption to be lower relative to men. Furthermore, older firms perceived corruption to be a more server obstacle, while sole proprietorships generally had the opposite view. The advantages of piercing the glass ceiling were undermined in nations with severe gender inequality.
    Keywords: corruption perceptions, entrepreneurship, gender, managers, owners
    JEL: K40 L20
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Blundell, Richard (University College London); Goll, David (University College London); Costa Dias, Monica (Institute for Fiscal Studies, London); Meghir, Costas (Yale University)
    Abstract: We investigate the role of training in reducing the gender wage gap using the UK-BHPS which contains detailed records of training. Using policy changes over an 18 year period we identify the impact of training and work experience on wages, earnings and employment. Based on a lifecycle model and using reforms as a source of exogenous variation we evaluate the role of formal training and experience in defining the evolution of wages and employment careers, conditional on education. Training is potentially important in compensating for the effects of children, especially for women who left education after completing high school.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, training, human capital, labor supply
    JEL: J22 J24 J31
    Date: 2019–04
  4. By: Bjuggren, Carl Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Elert, Niklas (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: This paper examines gender differences in optimism about the economy. We measure optimism using Swedish survey data in which respondents stated their beliefs about the country’s future economic situation. We argue that this measure of optimism is preferable to common measurements in the literature since it avoids confounding individuals’ economic situation with their perception of the future and it can be compared to economic indicators. In line with previous research, we find that men are more optimistic than women; however, men are also more prone to be wrong in their beliefs about the future economic situation. Furthermore, in sharp economic downturns, the gender differences in optimism disappear. This convergence in beliefs can be explained by the amount of available information on the economy.
    Keywords: Gender; Optimism; Perception of the future; Economic downturns
    JEL: D83 J16
    Date: 2019–04–25

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