nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒04‒29
ten papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Keep Calm and Carry on: Gender Differences in Endurance By Sophie Clot; Marina Della Giusta; Amalia Di Girolamo
  2. Gender Differences in Tournament Performance Over Time: Can Women Catch-Up with Men? By Booth, Alison L; Hayashi, Ryohei; Yamamura, Eiji
  3. Who works for whom and the UK gender pay gap By Sarah Louise Jewell; Giovanni Razzu; Carl Singleton
  4. Is Blinded Review Enough? How Gendered Outcomes Arise Even Under Anonymous Evaluation By Julian Kolev; Yuly Fuentes-Medel; Fiona Murray
  5. Gender Differential Effects of Technical and Vocational Training: Empirical Evidence for Tanzania By Cornel Joseph; Vincent Leyaro
  6. On why gender employment equality in Britain has stalled since the early 1990s By Giovanni Razzu; Carl Singleton; Mark Mitchell
  7. Measuring Gender Disparities in Unemployment Dynamics during the Recession: Evidence from Portugal By Joana Passinhas; Isabel Proença
  8. The gender gap in international trade: Female-run firms and the exporter productivity premium By Krenz, Astrid
  9. Girls, Boys, and High Achievers By Angela Cools; Raquel Fernández; Eleonora Patacchini
  10. Discrimination in Hiring Based on Potential and Realized Fertility : Evidence from a Large-Scale Field Experiment By Sascha O. Becker, Sascha O.; Fernandes, Ana; Weichselbaumer, Doris

  1. By: Sophie Clot (Department of Economics, University of reading); Marina Della Giusta (Department of Economics, University of Reading); Amalia Di Girolamo (Department of Economics, University of Birmingham)
    Abstract: We investigate endurance, the capacity to maintain levels of performance through internal rather than external motivation in non-rewarding tasks and over sequences of tasks, through a lab experiment. The significant driver of performance is payment scheme order for women and payment schemes for men. Both women and men respond to social cues, through increased intrinsic motivation (ambition) for women and through extrinsic motivation (competition) for men. We suggest implications for reward schemes in the workplace and for selection into executive positions.
    Keywords: gender, intrinsic motivation, endurance, monetary incentives, biased beliefs
    JEL: J16 J71 M12 M51
    Date: 2019–04–01
  2. By: Booth, Alison L; Hayashi, Ryohei; Yamamura, Eiji
    Abstract: We investigate the evolution over time of gender differences in single-sex and mixed-sex tournaments, using field data from the Japanese Speedboat Racing Association (JSRA). The JSRA randomly assigned individuals into single-sex and mixed-sex races, enabling us to model learning in different environments. Our dataset comprises over one million person-race observations of men and women making their speedboat racing debut between 1997 and 2012. We find that the average debut-woman's performance (measured by lane-changing and place-in-race) improves faster than debut-men's in single-sex races, but more slowly than debut-men's in mixed-sex races. For the average male racer, the opposite is true.
    Keywords: Competition; experience; Gender; mixed-sex; peer effects; random assignment; single-sex; tournaments
    JEL: J16 L83 M5
    Date: 2019–04
  3. By: Sarah Louise Jewell; Giovanni Razzu (Department of Economics, University of Reading); Carl Singleton (Department of Economics, University of Reading)
    Abstract: This study reports novel facts about the UK gender pay gap. We use a representative, longitudinal and employer-employee linked dataset for the years 2002-16. Men’s average log hourly wage was 22 points higher than women’s in this period. We find that 16% of this raw pay gap is accounted for by estimated firm-specific wage effects. This is almost three times the amount explained by the occupation differences between men and women. When we decompose a preadjusted measure of the pay gap, we find that less than 1 percentage point is accounted for by the allocation of men and women across high and low wage firms. In other words, only a small share (6%) of what is traditionally referred to as the ‘unexplained’ part of the pay gap is in fact explained by the differences between men and women in whom they work for.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, firm-specific wages, occupation premiums
    JEL: J16 J31 J70
    Date: 2019–04–11
  4. By: Julian Kolev; Yuly Fuentes-Medel; Fiona Murray
    Abstract: For organizations focused on scientific research and innovation, workforce diversity is a key driver of success. Blinded review is an increasingly popular approach to reducing bias and increasing diversity in the selection of people and projects, yet its effectiveness is not fully understood. We explore the impact of blinded review on gender inclusion in a unique setting: innovative research grant proposals submitted to the Gates Foundation from 2008-2017. Despite blinded review, female applicants receive significantly lower scores, which cannot be explained by reviewer characteristics, proposal topics, or ex-ante measures of applicant quality. By contrast, the gender score gap is no longer significant after controlling for text-based measures of proposals’ titles and descriptions. Specifically, we find strong gender differences in the usage of broad and narrow words, suggesting that differing communication styles are a key driver of the gender score gap. Importantly, the text-based measures that predict higher reviewer scores do not also predict higher ex-post innovative performance. Instead, female applicants exhibit a greater response in follow-on scientific output after an accepted proposal, relative to male applicants. Our results reveal that gender differences in writing and communication are a significant contributor to gender disparities in the evaluation of science and innovation.
    JEL: D70 J16 M14 O31 O32
    Date: 2019–04
  5. By: Cornel Joseph; Vincent Leyaro
    Abstract: This paper investigates the gender differential effect of technical and vocational educational and training (TVET) in Tanzania using data from the 2014 Integrated Labour Force Survey (ILFS). The multinomial logit model results for employment mobility show that TVET training significantly improves male and female chances of entering into formal employment while reducing their probability of being in informal work, agriculture or unemployed. The effects are much higher for females relative to males for almost all categories of education and training. The results show that although TVET training, and general education, increase male and female earnings significantly, the returns to TVET and general education are substantially higher for females. The decomposed gender earnings gap using Oaxaca and Blinder (1973) method reveals a significant gender earning gap in Tanzania, where males tends to earn significantly higher income (by 58 per cent on average) than females. As TVET and general education increase the probability of females to be in the formal employment more than for males, investing in girls skills training and education helps address the challenge of rising youth unemployment and increasing formal employment. Furthermore, as returns to TVET and general education are higher females, investing in girls’ skills training and education will help address gender earnings inequality
    Keywords: gender, employment, returns to education, TVET, Tanzania
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Giovanni Razzu (Department of Economics, University of Reading); Carl Singleton (Department of Economics, University of Reading); Mark Mitchell (School of Economics, University of Edinburgh)
    Abstract: Using over four decades of British micro data, this paper asks why the narrowing of the gender employment rate gap has stalled since the early 1990s. We find that changes to the structure of employment both between and within industry sectors impacted the gap at approximately constant rates throughout the period, and does not account for the stall. Instead, changes to how the characteristics of women's partners affected their own employment rates address most of the gap's shift in trend. There is also evidence that increases in women's employment when they had children or higher qualifications continued to narrow the gender gap even after it had stalled overall.
    Keywords: gender employment gaps, structural change, micro time series dataset
    JEL: E24 J16 J21
    Date: 2019–02
  7. By: Joana Passinhas; Isabel Proença
    Abstract: We research gender differences in unemployment incidence and persistence during the debt crisis in Portugal. A dynamic random effects probit model is estimated to control for unobserved individual heterogeneity and for the ‘initial conditions’ problem. The estimation uses data from four waves of the Survey on Income and Living Conditions (ICOR) between 2010 and 2013. We find strong evidence of persistence in unemployment, and an indication that men are more prone to endure the negative implications of previous unemployment. Simultaneously, we found evidence of higher probabilities of unemployment for women through a fixed effect that aimed to capture gender discrimination in an unstable labour market. Results suggest that policies to boost employment should accommodate a gender dimension and also have a special focus on the long-term unemployed.
    Keywords: unemployment, persistence, unobserved heterogeneity, dynamic random effects models, gender discrimination
    JEL: C23 C25 J21 J24 J71
    Date: 2019–04
  8. By: Krenz, Astrid
    Abstract: Female-run firms are less likely to be exporters although they exert positive influence in various aspects in an economy and society. With a new and comprehensive data set on manufacturing plants, I investigate the exporter productivity premium of female-run firms in Germany. The results show that female-run firms gain a higher exporter-productivity premium than male-run firms. I find evidence for selection into exporting but no impact for learning from exporting for female-run exporting firms. These results give hint to discrimination barriers that female-run firms face when they are exporting as compared to male-run firm exporters.
    Keywords: Gender Inequality,Exporter-Productivity Premium,Germany,Firm Heterogeneity
    JEL: F14 L25 L60 O12
    Date: 2019
  9. By: Angela Cools; Raquel Fernández; Eleonora Patacchini
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of exposure to female and male “high-achievers” in high school on the long-run educational outcomes of their peers. Using data from a recent cohort of students in the United States, we identify a causal effect by exploiting quasi-random variation in the exposure of students to peers with highly educated parents across cohorts within a school. We find that greater exposure to “high-achieving” boys, as proxied by their parents' education, decreases the likelihood that girls go on to complete a bachelor's degree, substituting the latter with junior college degrees. It also affects negatively their math and science grades and, in the long term, decreases labor force participation and increases fertility. We explore possible mechanisms and find that greater exposure leads to lower self-confidence and aspirations and to more risky behavior (including having a child before age 18). The girls most strongly affected are those in the bottom half of the ability distribution (as measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test), those with at least one college-educated parent, and those attending a school in the upper half of the socioeconomic distribution. The effects are quantitatively important: an increase of one standard deviation in the percent of “high-achieving” boys decreases the probability of obtaining a bachelor's degree from 2.2-4.5 percentage points, depending on the group. Greater exposure to “high-achieving” girls, on the other hand, increases bachelor's degree attainment for girls in the lower half of the ability distribution, those without a college-educated parent, and those attending a school in the upper half of the socio-economic distribution. The effect of “high-achievers” on male outcomes is markedly different: boys are unaffected by “high-achievers” of either gender.
    JEL: I21 J16
    Date: 2019–04
  10. By: Sascha O. Becker, Sascha O. (Department of Economics, University of Warwick); Fernandes, Ana (Bern University of Applied Sciences); Weichselbaumer, Doris (Johannes Kepler University Linz)
    Abstract: Due to conventional gender norms, women are more likely to be in charge of childcare than men. From an employer’s perspective, in their fertile age they are also at “risk” of pregnancy. Both factors potentially affect hiring practices of firms. We conduct a largescale correspondence test in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria, sending out approx. 9,000 job applications, varying job candidate’s personal characteristics such as marital status and age of children. We find evidence that, for part-time jobs, married women with older kids, who likely finished their childbearing cycle and have more projectable childcare chores than women with very young kids, are at a significant advantage vis-àvis other groups of women. At the same time, married, but childless applicants, who have a higher likelihood to become pregnant, are at a disadvantage compared to single, but childless applicants to part-time jobs. Such effects are not present for full-time jobs, presumably, because by applying to these in contrast to part-time jobs, women signal that they have arranged for external childcare.
    Keywords: Fertility ; Discrimination ; Experimental economics
    JEL: C93 J16 J71
    Date: 2019

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