nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒03‒25
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Speaking for Herself: Changing Gender Roles in Survey Response By Minhas, Sabrina; Oksol, Amy
  2. Gender differences in competition: gender equality and cost reduction policies By Osorio, António (António Miguel)
  3. Why don’t more girls choose to pursue a science career? By Tarek Mostafa
  4. The Boy Crisis: Experimental Evidence on the Acceptance of Males Falling Behind By Cappelen, Alexander W.; Falch, Ranveig; Tungodden, Bertil
  5. Occupational Social Value and Returns to Long Hours By Gicheva, Dora
  6. Family-Oriented Job Benefits and the Returns to Graduate Education By Gicheva, Dora; Mikkelsen, Ian
  7. Gender Differences in Inter Vivos Transfers By Abigail Loxton

  1. By: Minhas, Sabrina (Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City); Oksol, Amy (Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City)
    Abstract: Among married and cohabiting couples, the percentage of female respondents has increased substantially in the PSID (Panel Study of Income Dynamics) from 9% in 1968 to 60% in 2015. This shift in gender composition has taken place despite a formal policy that historically designated male heads of household as respondents. We use this shift as a case study to explore which characteristics are associated with women responding to the PSID and how different respondent gender compositions may affect data quality. First, we find that women are increasingly less likely to respond as their husband’s income increases or if their husband is highly educated. Women are more likely to respond if they are more educated than their husband. {{p}} Second, we find that male respondents tend to report incomes about $5,000 higher than female respondents. Had the gender composition of respondents been closer to 50/50, average household income would have been reduced by as much as $2,500. Our research provides important insights into the quality of survey data and the changing role of women in households.
    Keywords: Household Surveys; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)
    JEL: C80 J10 J16
    Date: 2019–02–28
  2. By: Osorio, António (António Miguel)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the implications of the unequal division of the domestic labor in men and women’s participation and effort incentives in competitive relations, in which the labor market is the main example. We found that moderate levels of affirmative action (i.e., bias in favor of women) incentivize men and women to exert more effort and women’s participation. However, it cannot guarantee full participation and equal effort among men and women without inducing economic inefficiency or even distorting the labor market. Given these limitations, we consider the effects of an alternative policy that supports the men’s involvement in the domestic tasks. The main conclusion is that if we want men and women to have the same opportunities in the labor market, we must solve the household problem first. While women hold a larger share of the domestic labor, they are in a weaker position to compete with men. We expect that our findings will guide researchers and decision-makers implementing effective policies that can allow men and women to have the same labor market opportunities. Keywords: Gender equality; Affirmative action; Cost reduction policies; Efficiency; Women participation. JEL classification: J16, J78, D63, C72.
    Keywords: Igualtat entre els sexes, Programes d'acció positiva, 331 - Treball. Relacions laborals. Ocupació. Organització del treball,
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Tarek Mostafa
    Abstract: When new PISA data are published, many researchers around the world analyse them with the aim of shedding light on all sorts of questions. One question in search of an answer: why are women under-represented in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) professions? Using data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), Gijsbert Stoet and David Geary examined the nature of the gender gap in STEM fields. The authors analysed data from 67 countries and economies participating in the 2015 cycle of PISA; these data were supplemented by country-level indicators on gender equality (the Global Gender Equality Index) and the proportion of women graduating in a STEM field. Their analysis yielded an interesting result.
    Date: 2019–02–26
  4. By: Cappelen, Alexander W. (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration); Falch, Ranveig (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration); Tungodden, Bertil (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: Abstract The ‘boy crisis’ prompts the question of whether people interpret inequalities differently depending on whether males or females are lagging behind. We study this question in a novel large-scale distributive experiment involving more than 5,000 Americans. Our data provide strong evidence of a gender bias against low-performing males, particularly among female participants. A large set of additional treatments establishes that the gender bias reflects statistical fairness discrimination. The study provides novel evidence on the nature of discrimination and on how males falling behind are perceived by society.
    Keywords: Gender bias; boy crisis; statistical fairness discrimination; large-scale experiment
    JEL: C91 D63 J16
    Date: 2019–03–01
  5. By: Gicheva, Dora (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper examines the phenomenon of uncompensated long hours in jobs with pro-social characteristics and presents evidence that long-hour wage premiums and occupational social value are substitutes in compensating salaried workers who supply hours exceeding the standard workweek. I show that the social value of an occupation, in particular the degree to which jobs involve helping or providing service to others, is inversely related to long-hour pay. Allowing for heterogeneity in the degree to which workers value their job's helping orientation allows me to explore how gender differences in employees' attitudes toward pro-social behavior can explain some of the observed occupational sorting trends and gender differences in long-hour compensation. Women tend to be more strongly drawn to "helping" occupations and at the same time receive lower long-hour premiums in these jobs relative to men. I offer a theoretical framework to rationalize the empirical trends.
    Keywords: job characteristics; return to long hours; occupational choice; gender differences;
    JEL: J16 J24 J31
    Date: 2019–03–21
  6. By: Gicheva, Dora (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Mikkelsen, Ian (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: We investigate how the choice of flexible working schedules and family-friendly benefits interacts with the education investment decisions and career trajectories of young professionals. We show that workers in white-collar professional occupations are less likely to choose family-friendly jobs when they have invested more in graduate business education. Our results indicate further that family-friendly employment is costly for all men in the sample, while for women the wage penalty is pronounced among MBA graduates. We also show evidence that self-employment is one channel through which workers attain balance between career and family demands.
    Keywords: Gender differences; non-wage benefits; work-life balance; MBA education;
    JEL: J16 J31 J32 J44
    Date: 2019–02–28
  7. By: Abigail Loxton (Department of Economics Indiana University)
    Abstract: To what extent do parents exhibit preferential treatment for one gender with respect to financial gifts to children? Using the Health and Retirement Study from 1992-2014, I estimate differences in the frequency and magnitude of gifts to sons and daughters. Conditional on a transfer, there is no evidence of differences in amounts between sons and daughters. However parents give to daughters at higher rates. I explore potential mechanisms for this disparity: in particular, I address the altruism and exchange motives for inter vivos transfers. I find that the difference in giving rates is partially explained by higher expected rates of future care from daughters. Even after controlling for discrepancy in care-taking, income levels, and other observable characteristics, parents are still 10-20% more likely to give a transfer to their daughters. The discrepancy in giving rates is driven by unmarried children: once daughters marry they are less likely to receive a transfer.
    Keywords: inter vivos transfers; gender differences; altruism; informal care
    JEL: D64 J14 J16
    Date: 2019–02

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