nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒03‒04
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Born in the Family: Preferences for Boys and the Gender Gap in Math By Dossi, Gaia; Figlio, David N.; Giuliano, Paola; Sapienza, Paola
  2. Brave Boys and Play-it-Safe Girls: Gender Differences in Willingness to Guess in a Large Scale Natural Field Experiment By Iriberri, Nagore; Rey-Biel, Pedro
  3. Do Male Managers Increase Risk-Taking of Female Teams? Evidence from the NCAA By Böheim, René; Freudenthaler, Christoph; Lackner, Mario
  4. Gender Differences in Negotiation: Evidence fro Real Estate Transactions. By Lise Vesterlund
  5. Gender Grading Bias in Junior High School Mathematics By Berg, Petter; Palmgren, Ola; Tyrefors, Björn
  6. Child Penalties Across Countries: Evidence and Explanations By Kleven, Henrik; Landais, Camille; Posch, Johanna; Steinhauer, Andreas; zweimueller, josef

  1. By: Dossi, Gaia (Columbia University); Figlio, David N. (Northwestern University); Giuliano, Paola (University of California, Los Angeles); Sapienza, Paola (Northwestern University)
    Abstract: We study the correlation between parental gender attitudes and the performance in mathematics of girls using two different approaches and data. First, we identify families with a preference for boys by using fertility stopping rules in a population of households whose children attend public schools in Florida. Girls growing up in a boy-biased family score 3 percentage points lower on math tests when compared to girls raised in other families. Second, we find similar strong effects when we study the correlations between girls' performance in mathematics and maternal gender role attitudes, using evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. We conclude that socialization at home can explain a non-trivial part of the observed gender disparities in mathematics performance and document that maternal gender attitudes correlate with those of their children, supporting the hypothesis that preferences transmitted through the family impact children behavior.
    Keywords: gender Differences, cultural transmission, math performance
    JEL: A13 I20 J16 Z1
    Date: 2019–02
  2. By: Iriberri, Nagore; Rey-Biel, Pedro
    Abstract: We study gender differences in willingness to guess using approximately 10,000 multiple-choice math tests, where for half of the questions, both wrong answers and omitted questions are scored 0, and for the other half, wrong answers are scored 0 but omitted questions are scored +1. Using a within-participant regression analysis, we find that female participants leave significantly more omitted questions than males when there is a reward for omitted questions. This gender difference, which is stronger among high ability and older participants, hurts female performance as measured by the final score and position in the ranking. In a subsequent survey, female participants showed lower levels of confidence and higher risk aversion, which may explain this differential behavior. When both are considered, risk aversion is the main factor explaining the gender differential in the willingness to guess. A scoring rule that is gender neutral must use non-differential scoring between wrong answers and omitted questions.
    Keywords: confidence; gender differences; natural field experiment; perceived ability in math; risk preferences; willingness to guess
    JEL: C93 D81 I20 J16
    Date: 2019–02
  3. By: Böheim, René (University of Linz); Freudenthaler, Christoph (University of Linz); Lackner, Mario (University of Linz)
    Abstract: We analyze the effect of the coach's gender on risk-taking in women sports teams using data taken from National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball games. We find that the coach's gender has a sizable and significant effect on risk-taking, a finding that is robust to several empirical strategies, including an instrumental variable approach. In particular, we find that risk-taking among teams with a male head coach is 5 percentage points greater than that in teams with a female head coach. This gap is persistent over time and across intermediate game standings. The fact that risk-taking has a significantly positive effect on game success suggests that female coaches should be more risk-taking.
    Keywords: corporate risk-taking, gender difference, success
    JEL: J16 J44
    Date: 2019–02
  4. By: Lise Vesterlund
    Abstract: Proper assessment of the negotiated ‘item’ is essential in determining whether individualssecure different outcomes through negotiations. For example, evidence that negotiations lead tohigher wages for men than women need not imply differences in negotiation ability but mayreflect differences in outside options and in the assessed value of the employee-employer match.Investigating real estate negotiations, we study a market with detailed information on the value ofthe negotiated item. We find evidence that men secure better prices than women do whennegotiating to buy and to sell property. However, this price difference declines substantiallywhen we include better controls for the property’s value; and the difference is essentiallyeliminated when we control for unobserved heterogeneity in a sample of repeated sales.Intriguingly, the price difference is completely absent when we look at the sales prices individualssecure for property inherited from a deceased parent. This finding suggests that genderdifferences from real estate negotiations likely result from insufficient value assessment and fromfailure to properly control for the different property characteristics demanded by men andwomen. Provided appropriate controls, we find no evidence that men and women securedifferent prices when negotiating over real estate.
    Date: 2018–01
  5. By: Berg, Petter (Department of Economics); Palmgren, Ola (Department of Economics); Tyrefors, Björn (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: Admission to high school in Sweden is based on the final grades from junior high. This paper compares students’ final mathematics grade with new data from a high school introductory test score in mathematics. Both the grades and the test are based on the same syllabus, but teachers enjoy great discretion when deciding final grades, as the grades are not externally evaluated. The results show a substantial grading difference, consistent with grading bias against boys.​
    Keywords: Educational economics; Gender; Grading bias; Mathematics
    JEL: I20 I24 I28 J16
    Date: 2019–02–13
  6. By: Kleven, Henrik; Landais, Camille; Posch, Johanna; Steinhauer, Andreas; zweimueller, josef
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence on child penalties in female and male earnings in different countries. The estimates are based on event studies around the birth of the first child, using the specification proposed by Kleven et al. (2018). The analysis reveals some striking similarities in the qualitative effects of children across countries, but also sharp differences in the magnitude of the effects. We discuss the potential role of family policies (parental leave and child care provision) and gender norms in explaining the observed differences.
    Date: 2019–01

This nep-gen issue is ©2019 by Jan Sauermann. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.