nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒01‒21
nine papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Women in Economics: Stalled Progress By Lundberg, Shelly; Stearns, Jenna
  2. Gender, Culture and STEM: Counter-Intuitive Patterns in Arab Society By Naomi Friedman-Sokuler; Moshe Justman
  3. Gender-Targeted Job Ads in the Recruitment Process: Evidence from China By Kuhn, Peter J.; Shen, Kailing; Zhang, Shuo
  4. Gender in the Labor Market: The Role of Equal Opportunity and Family-Friendly Policies By Elizabeth L. Doran; Ann P. Bartel; Jane Waldfogel
  5. Gender Quotas or Girls' Networks? Evidence from an Italian Research Selection By Checchi, Daniele; Kulic, Nevena; Cicognani, Simona
  6. Do Female Managers Help to Lower Within-Firm Gender Pay Gaps? Public Institutions vs. Private Enterprises By Magda, Iga; Cukrowska-Torzewska, Ewa
  7. Public Policy of Gender Equality in Albania in the Contexts of New Institutionalism By Eglantina Gjermeni; Alkida Lushaj
  8. Connecting to Economic Opportunity? The Role of Public Transport in Promoting Women's Employment in Lima By Martinez, Daniel; Mitnik, Oscar A.; Salgado, Edgar; Scholl, Lynn; Yanez-Pagans, Patricia
  9. Teaching, Gender and Labour Market Incentives By Carroll, David; Parasnis, Jaai; Tani, Massimiliano

  1. By: Lundberg, Shelly (University of California, Santa Barbara); Stearns, Jenna (University of California, Davis)
    Abstract: In this paper, we first document trends in the gender composition of academic economists over the past 25 years, the extent to which these trends encompass the most elite departments, and how women's representation across fields of study within economics has changed. We then review the recent literature on other dimensions of women's relative position in the discipline, including research productivity and income, and assess evidence on the barriers that female economists face in publishing, promotion, and tenure. While underlying gender differences can directly affect the relative productivity of men and women, due to either differential constraints or preferences, productivity gaps do not fully explain the gender disparity in promotion rates in economics. Furthermore, the progress of women has stalled relative to that in other disciplines in the past two decades. We propose that differential assessment of men and women is one important factor in explaining this stalled progress, reflected in gendered institutional policies and apparent implicit bias in promotion and editorial review processes.
    Keywords: gender, economics, promotion, tenure, publishing
    JEL: J16 J71 J21
    Date: 2018–11
  2. By: Naomi Friedman-Sokuler (Bar-Ilan University); Moshe Justman
    Abstract: Arab society in Israel offers a counter-example, which calls into question the hypothesis that the male advantage in STEM decreases as gender equality in society increases. Analyzing administrative longitudinal data on students in Hebrew- and Arabic-language schools in Israel, all operating within the same centralized education system, we find that the gender achievement-gap favoring girls in Arabic schools, the ethnic group characterized by less gender equality, is greater than the gender gap favoring girls in Hebrew schools. Moreover, male dominated STEM matriculation electives in Hebrew schools are female-dominated in Arabic schools, controlling for prior achievement in mathematics. We show that these patterns are not dependent on socioeconomic or school characteristics but rather reflect ethnic differences in the gendered effect of prior achievement on subject choice. While in Hebrew-language schools the gender gaps favoring men in physics, computer science and advanced mathematics electives increase in early mathematical achievement, in Arabic-language schools gender gaps favoring men are non-existent and even reversed among top achieving students.
    Keywords: culture, gender gap in mathematics, STEM, Arab society, educational choice
    JEL: I21 J15 J16 J24
    Date: 2019–02
  3. By: Kuhn, Peter J. (University of California, Santa Barbara); Shen, Kailing (Australian National University); Zhang, Shuo (University of California, Santa Barbara)
    Abstract: We document how explicit employer requests for applicants of a particular gender enter the recruitment process on a Chinese job board. We find that 95 percent of callbacks to gendered jobs are of the requested gender; worker self-selection ("compliance" with employers' requests) and employer callback decisions from applicant pools ("enforcement") both contribute to this association, with compliance playing the larger role. Explicit gender requests account for over half of the gender segregation and gender wage gap observed on the board. Ad-level regressions with job title and firm fixed effects suggest that employers' explicit gender requests have causal effects on the gender mix of applications received, especially when the employer's likely gender preference is hard to infer from other contents of the ad. Application-level regressions with job title and worker fixed effects show that both men and women experience a callback penalty when applying to a gender-mismatched job; this penalty is significantly greater for women (44 percent) than men (26 percent).
    Keywords: gender, discrimination, China, internet search, recruiting, screening
    JEL: J16 J63 J71
    Date: 2018–12
  4. By: Elizabeth L. Doran; Ann P. Bartel; Jane Waldfogel
    Abstract: Although the gender wage gap in the U.S. has narrowed, women’s career trajectories diverge from men’s after the birth of children, suggesting a potential role for family-friendly policies. We provide new evidence on employer provision of these policies. Using the American Time Use Survey, we find that women are less likely than men to have access to any employer-provided paid leave and this differential is entirely explained by part-time status. Using the NLSY97, we find that young women are more likely to have access to specifically designated paid parental leave, even in part-time jobs. Both datasets show insignificant gender differentials in access to employer-subsidized child care and access to scheduling flexibility. We conclude with a discussion of policy implications
    JEL: J32 J38 J71
    Date: 2018–12
  5. By: Checchi, Daniele (University of Milan); Kulic, Nevena (European University Institute); Cicognani, Simona (Free University of Bozen/Bolzano)
    Abstract: This article investigates the role of the gender composition of selection committees and the role of connections in promoting women in research activities. Exploiting a newly collected data set on recruitment processes to entry-level research positions in a leading Italian research centre operating mainly in the hard sciences, the study finds that bias against women manifests itself at non-tenured entry level and is attenuated by the presence of a woman on the selection committee. However, the most important predictor for recruitment in the study is previous connections with the research centre, a mechanism which, due the lower density of network links with the institute among female candidates, operates as a selection device discriminating against women. The results suggest that gender of the committee members, network structure and type of recruitment must all be taken into account in approaching recruitment policy and that very early stages of scientific careers are crucial for addressing gender bias in research.
    Keywords: connections, gender bias, gender quotas, Italy, research recruitment
    JEL: J70
    Date: 2018–12
  6. By: Magda, Iga (Warsaw School of Economics); Cukrowska-Torzewska, Ewa (University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: We analyze the link between the presence of female managers and the size of the firm-level gender pay gap, looking separately at the private and public sector. Using a large linked employer-employee dataset for Poland and a non-parametric and parametric decompositions, we find that higher presence of female managers is associated with more pay advantage towards women in selected types of public sector units: the ones in which remunerations of women and men are already equal, and a large share of the workforce is tertiary-educated. The effects are, however, relatively small in size. In private establishments, lower gender wage inequality is associated with higher shares of female workers, but not female managers.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, wage inequalities, public sector, female managers, Ñopo decomposition, Oaxaca- Blinder decomposition
    JEL: J16 J31 J45
    Date: 2018–12
  7. By: Eglantina Gjermeni (Parliament of Albania, Tirana, Albania); Alkida Lushaj (OSCE Presence in Albania, Parliament of Albania, Tirana, Albania)
    Abstract: The core of this paper is to analyze the public policy of gender equality in Albania, particularly on policy areas of political participation, in the context of new institutional approaches. Having done a research, this article attempts to explain the effects of mechanism as gender quota to the level of women's participation in politics and decision-making in Albania. At the same time, examines the challenges of gender quota implementation in Albania. In this paper, it is understood that the interpretation of “the gender inequality problem†determines the equality policies applied on this issue and the structure of formal institutions in that policy. That is, how the gender equality policy has been formed and applied as a public policy in Albania. Besides, equality policies and formal institutional structure on that issue is being formed depending on how “the problem of gender inequality†is perceived by policy-maker actors. In this paper, using the concept of gender as a process analysis, we find evidence that the implementation of gender quotas increased the number of women's participation in politics and decision-making and brought in a more diverse group of women. We also find that women in Albania still continue to face inequality and discrimination, and there is still a lot to be done, to enjoy their rights de facto and to have effective protection against gender discrimination.
    Keywords: Gender Equality, Gender Quota, Public Policy, New Institutionalism
    Date: 2018–11
  8. By: Martinez, Daniel (Inter-American Development Bank); Mitnik, Oscar A. (Inter-American Development Bank); Salgado, Edgar (Inter-American Development Bank); Scholl, Lynn (Inter-American Development Bank); Yanez-Pagans, Patricia (IDB Invest)
    Abstract: Limited access to safe transportation is one of the greatest challenges to labor force participation faced by women in developing countries. This paper quantifies the causal impacts of improved urban transport systems in women´s employment outcomes, looking at Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and elevated light rail investments in the metropolitan region of Lima, Perú. We find large gains in employment and earnings per hour among women, and not for men, due to these investments. Most of the gains arise on the extensive margin, with more women being employed, but employment does not appear to be of higher quality than that for comparison groups. We find also evidence of an increase in the use of public transport. Results are robust to alternative specifications and we do not find evidence that they are driven by neighborhood composition changes. Overall, these findings suggest that infrastructure investments that make it more convenient and safer for women to use public transport can generate important labor market impacts for women who reside in the area of influence of the improved infrastructure.
    Keywords: urban transport, gender, employment, impact evaluation
    JEL: J01 J16 O12 R40
    Date: 2018–12
  9. By: Carroll, David (UNSW Canberra); Parasnis, Jaai (Monash University); Tani, Massimiliano (University of New South Wales)
    Abstract: The concentration of women in the teaching profession is widely noted and generally attributed to gender differences in preferences and social roles. Further, gender segregation exists within this profession – women make up almost all of the primary and pre-primary teaching cohorts, while men who choose to become teachers tend to specialise in secondary schooling and administrative roles. To what extent is this gender structure in teaching a response to economic incentives from the labour market? Our research addresses this question by studying the effects of wage structure on the decision to become a teacher. In particular, we ask what the most attractive choice is for a graduate given the wage structure of the previous graduate cohort. We show that the labour market, especially the relative returns to education across occupations for men and women, can explain these vocational choices in the Australian context. Women with bachelor qualifications receive higher returns as teachers, while men with bachelor qualifications receive higher returns in other occupations. In contrast, while both men and women with postgraduate qualifications earn higher returns in other occupations, the difference is consistently smaller for women than men. Women face a lower opportunity cost for becoming a teacher compared to men. A more balanced gender representation among teachers seems unlikely given the existing structure of returns to education, by gender, across professions.
    Keywords: occupational segregation, teachers, opportunity cost, decomposition
    JEL: J16 J24 J31
    Date: 2018–12

This nep-gen issue is ©2019 by Jan Sauermann. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.