nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2019‒01‒14
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender-Targeted Job Ads in the Recruitment Process: Evidence from China By Peter Kuhn; Kailing Shen; Shuo Zhang
  2. Recession, Austerity and Gender: A Comparison of Eight European Labour Markets By Hélène Périvier
  3. The Gender Gap in Attitudes and Test Scores: a new construct of the mathematical capability. By Di Tommaso, Maria Laura; Maccagnan, Anna; Mendolia, Silvia
  4. Gender Quotas in Hiring Committees: a Boon or a Bane for Women? By Pierre Deschamps
  5. The Causal Impact of Removing Children from Abusive and Neglectful Homes By Anthony Bald; Eric Chyn; Justine S. Hastings; Margarita Machelett
  6. Does board gender diversity influence firm profitability? A control function approach By Rey Dang; L’Hocine Houanti; Krishna Reddy; Michel Simioni

  1. By: Peter Kuhn; Kailing Shen; Shuo Zhang
    Abstract: We document how explicit employer requests for applicants of a particular gender enter the recruitment process on a Chinese job board. We find that 95 percent of callbacks to gendered jobs are of the requested gender; worker self-selection (“compliance” with employers’ requests) and employer callback decisions from applicant pools (“enforcement”) both contribute to this association, with compliance playing the larger role. Explicit gender requests account for over half of the gender segregation and gender wage gap observed on the board. Ad-level regressions with job title and firm fixed effects suggest that employers’ explicit gender requests have causal effects on the gender mix of applications received, especially when the employer’s likely gender preference is hard to infer from other contents of the ad. Application-level regressions with job title and worker fixed effects show that both men and women experience a callback penalty when applying to a gender-mismatched job; this penalty is significantly greater for women (44 percent) than men (26 percent).
    JEL: J16 J63 J71
    Date: 2018–12
  2. By: Hélène Périvier (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)
    Abstract: The collapse in GDP brought about by the global economic crisis in 2008 affected female employment less than male employment, whereas austerity has been particularly harsh on women, a gendered impact described in the literature as “he‐cession to sh(e)‐austerity”. This article analyses gendered trends in the labour markets of eight European countries, decomposing quarterly changes in labour participation of women and men and in employment by sector. The “he‐cession to sh(e)‐austerity” scenario is not observed in all countries. Other channels through which austerity policies can jeopardize gender equality and women's rights are identified with reference to a typology of such policies.
    Keywords: Recession and gender; Austerity and gender; Female employment; Economy and gender
    Date: 2018
  3. By: Di Tommaso, Maria Laura; Maccagnan, Anna; Mendolia, Silvia (University of Turin)
    Abstract: In most OECD countries, girls outperform boys in all subjects except mathematics. Usually, only test scores are utilised as a measure of mathematical skills. In this paper, we argue that in order to measure children’s capability in mathematics we need to include some indicators of the attitudes of children towards the subject. This is particularly important when we analyse gender gaps, because attitudes towards mathematics differ by gender. We first describe the differences by gender both in test scores and attitudes utilising a model including school fixed effects. Next, we estimate a quantile regression in order to analyse how the gender gap varies across the distribution of the attitudes. Lastly, in addition to the test scores in mathematics, we use indicators of attitudes towards maths to estimate a Structural Equation Model, which takes into account that maths capability is a latent construct of which we only observe some indicators (test scores and attitudes). We use data from the Italian National Test (Invalsi) for year 5 and year 10 in 2014 and 2015. Results confirm that when we measure mathematics capability including attitudes in addition to test scores, the gap between boys and girls is even wider with respect to the analysis of test scores alone, and therefore educational policies aimed at reducing the gender gap in mathematics should address both attitudes and test scores.
    Date: 2018–09
  4. By: Pierre Deschamps (Département d'économie)
    Abstract: Following in the footsteps of similar initiatives at the boardroom level in Norway and other European countries, the French government decided to impose a gender quota in academic hiring committees in 2015. The goal of this paper is to evaluate how this reform changed the way women are ranked by these committees. The reform affected academic disciplines heterogeneously. I contrast the effect of the reform between fields that were significantly affected, and those that already respected the quota before the reform. Drawing on a unique dataset made up of administrative data provided by French universities, I show that the reform significantly worsened both the probability of being hired and the ranks of women, with a treatment effect equivalent to a 4 standard deviation drop in h-index. There is evidence that this is driven mainly by the reaction of men to the reform, since the negative effect of the reform is concentrated in committees that are helmed by men.
    Keywords: Economics of gender; Discrimination
    Date: 2018–11
  5. By: Anthony Bald; Eric Chyn; Justine S. Hastings; Margarita Machelett
    Abstract: This paper uses administrative data to measure causal impacts of removing children from families investigated for abuse or neglect. We use the removal tendency of quasi-experimentally assigned child protective service investigators as an instrument for whether authorities removed and placed children into foster care. Our main analysis estimates impacts on educational outcomes by gender and age at the time of an investigation. We find that removal significantly increases standardized test scores for young girls. There are no detectable impacts on the test scores of girls removed at older ages or boys of any age. For older children, we also find few significant impacts of removal on the likelihood of having a juvenile conviction, graduating from high school, enrolling in a postsecondary institution, or having a teenage birth. We investigate potential mechanisms driving heterogeneous impacts by gender and age. Our results do not appear to be driven by heterogeneous effects on foster care placement, school mobility and quality, or participation in special education programs. For girls, we find that removal significantly increases the likelihood of post-investigation criminal charges or incarceration for parents and caretakers who are the perpetrators of abuse or neglect.
    JEL: H75 I21 I24 I28 I38 J12 J13 J24
    Date: 2019–01
  6. By: Rey Dang (LaRGE Research Center, Université de Strasbourg); L’Hocine Houanti; Krishna Reddy; Michel Simioni
    Abstract: We investigate the relation between board gender diversity and firm profitability using the control function (CF) approach recently suggested by Wooldridge (2015). The CF method takes account of the problem of endogenous explanatory variables that have potential to bias the results. Using a sample of firms that made up the S&P 500 over the period 2004-2015, we find that the presence of women on corporate boards (measured either by the percentage of female directors on corporate boards or the Blau index of heterogeneity) has a positive and significant (at the 1% level) effect on firm profitability (measured by the return on assets). We compare our results to more traditional approaches (such as pooled OLS or the fixed-effects model). Through this study, we shed light on the effect of women on corporate boards on firm performance, as it is still a controversial issue (Post and Byron, 2015).
    Keywords: Women, board of directors, econometrics, control function, firm performance.
    JEL: G30 G34 J1
    Date: 2019

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