nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2018‒12‒24
ten papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender differences under test pressure and their impact on academic performance: a quasi-experimental design By Daniel Montolio; Pere A. Taberner
  2. Gender Differences within the Firm: Evidence from Two Million Travelers By Donna, Javier D.; Veramendi, Gregory
  3. Commuting Patterns, the Spatial Distribution of Jobs and the Gender Pay Gap in the U.S. By Gutierrez, Federico H.
  4. Leader gender stereotypes and transformational leadership: Does leader sex make the difference? By Sarah, E. Saint-Michel
  5. Do female managers help to lower within-firm gender pay gaps? Public institutions vs. private enterprises By Iga Magda; Ewa Cukrowska-Torzewska
  6. Does Female Breadwinning Make Partnerships Less Healthy or Less Stable? By Foster, Gigi; Stratton, Leslie S.
  7. Unions and Wage Inequality: The Roles of Gender, Skill and Public Sector Employment By Card, David; Lemieux, Thomas; Riddell, W. Craig
  8. The Heterogeneous Effect of Affirmative Action on Performance By Anat Bracha; Alma Cohen; Lynn Conell-Price
  9. How do working life and its interplay with family structures affect men’s and women’s gender role attitudes? By Mays, Anja
  10. Gender, Social Value Orientation, and Tax Compliance By John D'Attoma; Clara Volintiru; Antoine Malezieux

  1. By: Daniel Montolio (Universitat de Barcelona & Institut d’Economia de Barcelona (IEB)); Pere A. Taberner (KSNET)
    Abstract: Student performance at university is a strong determinant of individual decisions and future outcomes, most notably labour opportunities. Although published studies have found gender differences in student performance in response to pressure, little is known about such differences when university students are exposed to test pressure. Based on field data, this study aims to examine gender differences in student academic performance in response to different levels of pressure when sitting multiple choice tests, a frequently employed exam format at university. To do so, the introduction of continuous assessment in the evaluation system of a university course allows us to exploit a unique quasi-experimental set up in which the same students take similar tests throughout the course but under different levels of pressure. Exploiting two data structures—namely, pooled cross-sections and panel data—we find that male students outperform their female counterparts when under high pressure. However, in low test pressure scenarios the gender gap is narrowed and even reversed in favour of female students. Finally, we analyse the mechanisms responsible for the gender gap by studying how each gender responds to test pressure, and by studying gender differences when omitting test items on multiple choice formats.
    Keywords: Gender Differences, Test Pressure, Academic Performance, Field Data, Higher Education
    JEL: A22 I24 J16
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Donna, Javier D.; Veramendi, Gregory
    Abstract: We document gender differences in the behavior of similar workers within a firm when they book business air travel. We show that women pay consistently less per ticket than men, after accounting for a large set of covariates that include the characteristics of the traveler, the routes and class they travel on, the firms that employ them, and the position that the traveler holds in the firm. A large proportion of the lower fares paid by women is explained by women booking flights earlier than men. We find significant variation in gender differences across the regions of the world. Using country-level data on preference differences, we show that gender differences in both positive and negative reciprocity are an important factor associated with the documented gender differences. In particular, negative reciprocity alone is able to explain the gender difference in paid fare: women (men) are less (more) willing to trade the firms’ money for their own utility when they feel they have been treated unfairly. The documented gender differences have both important monetary implications for firms and implications for the role of morale within the firm.
    Keywords: Gender differences; worker gender differences
    JEL: D91 F00 J16 M50
    Date: 2018–08–06
  3. By: Gutierrez, Federico H.
    Abstract: This paper studies to what extent gender differences in commuting patterns explain the observed disparities between husband and wife in relation to earnings and wages. It is argued that the cost of commuting is higher for women because they bear a disproportionate share of housework and child-rearing responsibilities. Therefore, female workers tend to work relatively close to home. A `job location wage gap' emerges because jobs located away from the central business district offer lower wages. Using pooled data from the American Community Survey, the results indicate that 10% of the gender pay gap among childless workers and more than 23% of the wage decline attributed to being a mother ("child pay penalty") are explained by sex differences in commuting patterns. A conditional Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition indicates that short commutes are strongly associated with working in low-paying occupations and industries.
    Keywords: Gender pay gap,job location,wages,commute time,wage gradient
    JEL: J31 R41 J61 R23
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Sarah, E. Saint-Michel (UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: This research aims to understand how leaders' self-perception of their gender role identity, described as agentic or communal, influences their followers' perception of transformational leadership. Agentic attributes are stereotypically masculine while communal attributes are stereotypically feminine. Drawing on role congruity theory (Eagly & Karau, 2002) and leadership prototype theory (Lord & Maher, 1993), we propose a theoretical model to investigate the influence of leader sex and stereotypical gendered perception of leaders on perceptions of transformational leadership among their followers. Using a sample of 260 employees and their 65 immediate supervisors from French organizations, the results of multilevel structural equation modeling suggest that female leaders who self-describe as highly communal are perceived by followers as more transformational than male leaders. Contrary to our hypothesis, the results reveal an unexpected positive relationship between women's agentic attributes and follower perceptions of transformational leadership. Our findings develop role congruity theory by demonstrating the influence of gendered stereotypes not only for female but also male leaders.
    Keywords: multilevel structural equation modeling,transformational leadership,leader gender,gender role theory,role congruity theory,gender stereotype
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Iga Magda; Ewa Cukrowska-Torzewska
    Abstract: We analyse the link between the presence of female managers and the size of the firm-level gender pay gap. We look separately at the private and public sector, basing on a large linked employer-employee dataset for Poland. Using a non-parametric and parametric decompositions, we find that higher presence of female managers is associated with more pay advantage towards women in selected types of public sector units: the ones in which remunerations of women and men are already equal, and a large share of the workforce is tertiary-educated. The effects are, however, relatively small in size. In private establishments, lower gender wage inequality is associated with higher shares of female workers, but not female managers.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, wage inequalities, public sector, female managers, Nopo decomposition, Oaxaca- Blinder decomposition
    JEL: J16 J31 J45
    Date: 2018–12
  6. By: Foster, Gigi (University of New South Wales); Stratton, Leslie S. (Virginia Commonwealth University)
    Abstract: Economists increasingly accept that social norms have powerful effects on human behavior and outcomes. In recent history, one norm widely adhered to in most developed nations has been for men to be the primary breadwinner within mixed-gender households. As women have entered the labor market in greater numbers and gender wage differentials have declined, female breadwinning has become more common in such nations. Has this been accompanied by worse outcomes in non-monetary realms, due to the violation of the male breadwinning norm? This would be evidence that norms act to slow the pace of social evolution. We use household data from two countries to examine whether female breadwinning makes partnerships less healthy or less stable. US data from the late twentieth century shows that female breadwinning is associated with significantly more partnership problems for older couples in cross-sections and for younger couples in fixed-effects specifications. Examining more recent US and Australian data, we find that female breadwinning is associated with a modestly higher dissolution risk and a fall in some measures of reported relationship quality, but mainly for young people in cohabiting partnerships and men in less educated partnerships. We interpret these results to reflect changing social norms, plus relationship market dynamics arising from differences in the ease of access to superior partnership alternatives for women who out-earn their partners. While gender-specific breadwinning norms may be fading with time, economic realities and marriage market dynamics continue to be drivers of behavior and outcomes.
    Keywords: martial dissolution, happiness, family structure, economics of gender, social norms, earnings differentials
    JEL: J12 J16 I31 Z13
    Date: 2018–11
  7. By: Card, David (University of California, Berkeley); Lemieux, Thomas (University of British Columbia, Vancouver); Riddell, W. Craig (University of British Columbia, Vancouver)
    Abstract: We examine the changing relationship between unionization and wage inequality in Canada and the United States. Our study is motivated by profound recent changes in the composition of the unionized workforce. Historically, union jobs were concentrated among low-skilled men in private sector industries. With the steady decline in private sector unionization and rising influence in the public sector, unionization is now five times higher in the public than the private sector in both countries. Though the public sector represents only 15-20% of employment, half of unionized workers are in the public sector. Accompanying these changes was a remarkable rise in the share of women among unionized workers. Currently, approximately half of unionized employees in North America are women. While early studies of unions and inequality focused on males, recent studies examine both and reveal striking gender differences. A consistent - and puzzling - finding is that unions reduce wage inequality among men but not among women. In both countries we find striking differences between the private and public sectors in the effects of unionization on wage inequality. These differences have become more pronounced over time. At present, unions reduce economy-wide wage inequality by less than 10% in both countries. However, union impacts on wage inequality are much larger in the public sector. Once we disaggregate by sector the effects of unions on male and female wage inequality no longer differ. The key differences in union impacts are between the public and private sectors - not between males and females.
    Keywords: wage inequality, wage structure, unions, collective bargaining, Canada, United States, public sector
    JEL: J31 J45 J51
    Date: 2018–11
  8. By: Anat Bracha; Alma Cohen; Lynn Conell-Price
    Abstract: This paper experimentally investigates the effect of gender-based affirmative action (AA) on performance in the lab, focusing on a tournament environment. The tournament is based on GRE math questions commonly used in graduate school admission, and at which women are known to perform worse on average than men. We find heterogeneous effect of AA on female participants: AA lowers the performance of high-ability women and increases the performance of low-ability women. Our results are consistent with two possible mechanisms—one is that AA changes incentives differentially for low- and high-ability women, and the second is that AA triggers stereotype threat.
    JEL: C91 I28 J16 J78 K19 K31
    Date: 2018–12
  9. By: Mays, Anja
    Abstract: Using fixed effects models and longitudinal data from the British Household Panels Surveys (BHPS) and the follow-up study “Understanding Society” (UKHLS), the current study examines the impact of change in employment status and working conditions on gender role attitudes by simultaneously considering the family structure. A second research question investigates whether employment status and family life interact with one another regarding their influence on gender role attitudes. This study shows that men are more traditional before marriage as well as after separation or divorce, while the same correlation does not seem to exist for women. Moreover, having children affects men’s but not women’s tendencies towards more traditional attitudes. A further important conclusion drawn in this study is that employment status moderates the relationship between children and gender role attitudes: women working full-time develop more egalitarian gender role attitudes if they have additional children while their counterparts who are only working part-time or not working at all become more traditional in the same situation. Regarding occupational circumstances, it turns out that, for men, egalitarianism decreases as income increases; for women, on the other hand, the opposite is the case. Further, job satisfaction affects only the gender role attitudes of women: the higher the job satisfaction is the more egalitarian are their attitudes. In sum, our findings demonstrate that it is essential to consider both family structures and employment circumstances — not to mention their interdependency — to gain a deeper understanding of changes in gender role attitudes of adults.
    Keywords: gender roles,attitude change,women,employment,work
    Date: 2018
  10. By: John D'Attoma; Clara Volintiru; Antoine Malezieux
    Abstract: This paper brings an important empirical contribution to the academic literature by examining whether gender differences in tax compliance are due to higher prosociality among women. We conducted a large cross-national tax compliance experiment carried out in Italy, U.K., U.S., Sweden, and Romania, and assessed tax compliance as reported income as a percentage of total earned income in the experiment. We uncover that women declare a significantly higher percentage of their income than men in all five countries. While some scholars have argued that differences in honesty between men and women is actually being mediated by the fact that women are more prosocial than men, we find that women are not more prosocial than men in all countries. Furthermore, though overall women tend to be more prosocial on average than men, SVO has no mediation effect between gender and tax compliance. We conclude then that although differences in prosociality between men and women seem to be context dependent, differences in tax compliance are indeed much more consistent.
    Keywords: behavioral economics, tax compliance, gender
    JEL: A10 C90 C92 D64 H26 H30 H41
    Date: 2018

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