nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2018‒11‒12
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. "Do women ask for lower salaries? The supply side of the gender pay gap" By Martin Gonzalez-Rozada; Eduardo Levy Yeyati
  2. The Gender Gap in Attitudes and Test Scores: A New Construct of the Mathematical Capability By Di Tommaso, Maria Laura; Maccagnan, Anna; Mendolia, Silvia
  3. Impact of Intergovernmental Fiscal Transfers on Gender Equality in India: An Empirical Analysis. By Stotsky, Janet G.; Chakraborty, Lekha; Gandhi, Piyush
  4. Judging Ethical Behavior in the Workplace: The Role of Attractiveness and Gender By Zeev Shtudiner
  5. Changing Sex-Ratios among Immigrant Communities in the U.S. By Hernández Catañeda, Adriana; Sorensen, Todd A.

  1. By: Martin Gonzalez-Rozada; Eduardo Levy Yeyati
    Abstract: We explore a new rich dataset of online asking wages from a large online job application platform in Argentina. We find that women, on average, ask for a significant 6% less than men, a gender ask gap that increases with the “level” of the position (proxied, alternatively, by the seniority of the position and its average requested wage), virtually disappears for women in the 45-64 range, and is significantly smaller for female-dominated occupations, as measured by the female-to-male ratio.
    Keywords: asking wage gap, gender wage gap, supply-side gender pay gap.
    JEL: J71 J31
    Date: 2018–07
  2. By: Di Tommaso, Maria Laura (University of Turin); Maccagnan, Anna (University of Exeter); Mendolia, Silvia (University of Wollongong)
    Abstract: In most OECD countries, girls outperform boys in all subjects except mathematics. Usually, only test scores are utilised as a measure of mathematical skills. In this paper, we argue that in order to measure children's capability in mathematics we need to include some indicators of the attitudes of children towards the subject. This is particularly important when we analyse gender gaps, because attitudes towards mathematics differ by gender. We first describe the differences by gender both in test scores and attitudes utilising a model including school fixed effects. Next, we estimate a quantile regression in order to analyse how the gender gap varies across the distribution of the attitudes. Lastly, in addition to the test scores in mathematics, we use indicators of attitudes towards maths to estimate a Structural Equation Model, which takes into account that maths capability is a latent construct of which we only observe some indicators (test scores and attitudes). We use data from the Italian National Test (Invalsi) for year 5 and year 10 in 2014 and 2015. Results confirm that when we measure mathematics capability including attitudes in addition to test scores, the gap between boys and girls is even wider with respect to the analysis of test scores alone, and therefore educational policies aimed at reducing the gender gap in mathematics should address both attitudes and test scores.
    Keywords: maths gender gap, attitudes, structural equation models, school achievement
    JEL: J16 I24 C31
    Date: 2018–09
  3. By: Stotsky, Janet G. (American University); Chakraborty, Lekha (National Institute of Public Finance and Policy); Gandhi, Piyush (Oxford University)
    Abstract: Intergovernmental fiscal transfers (IGFT) are, in theory, neither good nor bad for tackling gender inequalities. Fiscal federalism with asymmetry in revenue and expenditure assignments inevitably leads to vertical and horizontal imbalances in public service provisioning. Intergovernmental transfers can play a role in equalization of fis-cal capacities because the states of India have different tax raising capacities and ca-pacities for funding public expenditure. Do higher per capita fiscal transfers help in reducing gender inequalities across states in India? Using data from the Finance Accounts of various states, we analyse the impact of fiscal transfers - both conditional and unconditional fiscal transfers - on the gender parity index in education, using panel data models. We find that unconditional transfers have a significant and positive impact on gender parity outcomes in the education sector at the primary and secondary levels, in contrast to tied transfers. The models also control for gender budgeting initiatives across states and find that gender budgeting has a beneficial effect on education equality. The policy implication of these results for the recently constituted Fifteenth Finance Commission in India is to strengthen the gender equality criteria in intergovernmental transfers in India.
    Keywords: intergovernmental fiscal transfers (IGFT) ; gender equality ; fiscal federalism ; gender budgeting ; panel data
    JEL: H00 I3 J16
    Date: 2018–10
  4. By: Zeev Shtudiner (Ariel University)
    Abstract: One of the most challenging areas for employees and managers is dealing with shades of gray related to ethical behaviors. The ability to evaluate unethical behavior can differ from person to person and is vulnerable to the influences of unrelated attributions. In the current study, we investigated the role of physical attractiveness and gender in judging severity of unethical workplace behavior. Scenarios with unethical behavioral dilemmas were displayed to 4,602 subjects in different versions accompanied with images. Our findings show that "gray area" behavior was evaluated with more severity if conducted by a plain-looking employee than an attractive one. When comparing genders, the same action was perceived as more ethical if performed by male employees. We explore a number of explanations for this discrimination based on the psychological literature.
    Keywords: business ethics, experiment, gender, beauty
    JEL: C91 M10
    Date: 2018–07
  5. By: Hernández Catañeda, Adriana; Sorensen, Todd A. (University of Nevada, Reno)
    Abstract: Marriage patterns of immigrants are an important indicator of the degree of immigrant integration into their host countries. Literature on the economics of the household has focused on the role of the sex-ratio as an important determining factor in marriage market outcomes. Therefore, it is important to understand if and how the sex-ratio has changed over time and the mechanisms that may drive that change. In this paper, we explore recent changes in the sex-ratio among immigrants to the United States. First, building upon previous research, we document the nongender neutral nature of declining immigration to the United States. We approach this study from two different dimensions to document some of the forces driving this change in the sex-ratio. The first approach, focusing on changes between birth cohorts, demonstrates that immigration is declining more quickly for men than it is for women, leading to a decrease in the sex-ratio from above 100 and thus bringing about more gender balanced migration. Second, we present results from an analysis of data on recently granted green cards, suggests that the sex-ratio among this population is increasing from below 100, also bringing about more gender-balance among immigrants.
    Keywords: immigration, sex-ratios, demographic change
    JEL: F22 J11 J12
    Date: 2018–09

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