nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2018‒10‒29
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. The Gender Gap in Citations: Lessons from Demographic Economics Journals By Shoshana Grossbard; Tansel Yilmazer; Lingrui Zhang
  2. Show What You Risk - Norms for Risk Taking By Grimm, Stefan
  3. Gender, risk preferences and willingness to compete in a random sample of the Swedish population By Boschini, Anne; Dreber, Anna; von Essen, Emma; Muren, Astri; Ranehill, Eva
  4. Transitioning towards more equality? Wealth gender differences and the changing role of explanatory factors over time By SIERMINSKA Eva; PIAZZALUNGA Daniela; GRABKA Markus
  5. (I Can’t Get No) Job Satisfaction? Differences by Sexual Orientation in Sweden By Hammarstedt, Mats; Aldén, Lina; Swahnberg, Hanna

  1. By: Shoshana Grossbard (San Diego State University); Tansel Yilmazer (Ohio State University); Lingrui Zhang (University of Waterloo)
    Abstract: This paper investigates gender differentials in citations of articles published in two journals specialized in Demographic Economics, a field that has traditionally attracted relatively large numbers of women researchers. In contrast to findings based on citations of top economics journals, we find a gender gap in citations favoring women among articles published in the Journal of Population Economics (JPOP) or the Review of Economics of the Household (REHO) between 2003 and 2014 . If the corresponding author is male, having at least one female co-author boosts citations. Across subfields of demographic economics, citations of female authors increase as female representation in the subfield increases. The gender gap in citations favoring women is not found for authors with limited experience past graduate school, which supports an explanation for the gender gap based on authors’ prior experience with economics journals of higher rank.
    Keywords: citations, gender gap
    JEL: A14 I23 D10 J10 J16
    Date: 2018–10
  2. By: Grimm, Stefan (LMU Munich)
    Abstract: Most economic decisions are embedded in a specific social context. In many such contexts, individual choices are influenced by their observability due to underlying social norms and social image concerns. This study investigates the impact of choices being observed, compared to anonymity of choices, on risk taking in a laboratory experiment. I relate participants\' investments in a risky asset directly to social norms for risk taking that are elicited in an incentivized procedure. I find that risk taking is not affected by the choice being observed by a matched participant. Nor do investments follow elicited norms for risk taking more closely when observed. This holds when considering males and females separately. However, I provide strong evidence for gender-specific norms in risk taking. While these explain part of the existing gender gap in risk taking, males still \"overshoot\" by investing more than the norm dictates. This is particularly true for males being matched with a female participant.
    Keywords: risk taking; observability; social image; norms; gender;
    JEL: C91 D01 D81 D91 G11
    Date: 2018–10–11
  3. By: Boschini, Anne (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University); Dreber, Anna (Department of Economics); von Essen, Emma (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University); Muren, Astri (Department of Economics); Ranehill, Eva (Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Experimental results from student or other non-representative convenience samples often suggest that men, on average, are more risk-taking and competitive than women. Here we explore whether these gender preference gaps also exist in a simple random sample of the Swedish adult population. Our design comprises four different treatments to systematically explore how the experimental context may impact gender gaps; a baseline treatment, a treatment where participants are primed with their own gender, and a treatment where the participants know the gender of their counterpart (man or woman). We look at willingness to compete in two domains: a math task and a verbal task. We find no gender differences in risk preferences or in willingness to compete in the verbal task in this random sample. There is some support for men being more competitive than women in the math task, in particular in the pooled sample. The effect size is however considerably smaller than what is typically found. We further find no consistent impact of treatment on (the absence of) the gender gap in preferences.
    Keywords: Gender differences; competitiveness; risk-taking; experiment; random representativ sample
    JEL: C83 C91 D91
    Date: 2018–10–17
    Abstract: We investigate the explanatory factors that have contributed to changing wealth levels and the gender wealth gap in Germany over the period 2002-2012. In particular, we analyze the role of changes in labor supply, permanent income, portfolio composition, and marital status on wealth accumulation. Using individual level micro data from the German Socio-Economic Panel results show that real mean wealth levels for the working age population have been decreasing for both women and men since 2002 and that the wealth gap has decreased by 13.5% to 30.700?. We show that the increased participation of women in the labor market and their occupational structure had an increasing positive role on women?s wealth accumulation. Making use of the panel dimension in the data and of Oaxaca-Blinder and Firpo, Fortin, Lemieux decompositions, in comparison to previous analyses, a diminishing role of permanent income is observed, due both to a reduction in the gender difference in permanent income and in gender differences in its returns. Overall, the evidence points to more equal wealth accumulation both in terms of characteristics and returns.
    Keywords: Wealth differences; Gender; SOEP; decomposition; labor supply; occupations
    JEL: D13 D31
    Date: 2018–10
  5. By: Hammarstedt, Mats (Linnaeus University Centre for Discrimination and Integration Studies); Aldén, Lina (Linnaeus University Centre for Discrimination and Integration Studies); Swahnberg, Hanna (Linnaeus University Centre for Discrimination and Integration Studies)
    Abstract: We present results from a unique nationwide survey conducted in Sweden on sexual orientation and job satisfaction. Our results show that gay men, on average, seem more satisfied with their job than heterosexual men; lesbians appear less satisfied with their job than heterosexual women. However, the issue of sexual orientation and job satisfaction is complex since gay men, despite their high degree of job satisfaction, like lesbians find their job more mentally straining than heterosexuals. We conclude that gay men and lesbians are facing other stressers at work than heterosexuals do. We also conclude that discrimination and prejudice may lead gay men to have low expectations about their job; these low expectations may translate into high job satisfaction. In contrast, prejudice and discrimination may hinder lesbians from realizing their career plans, resulting in low job satisfaction.
    Keywords: Job satisfaction; Sexual orientation
    JEL: J15 J28 J71
    Date: 2018–10–12

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