nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2018‒10‒22
three papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender differences in top leadership roles: Does aversion to worker backlash matter? By Priyanka Chakraborty; Danila Serra
  2. Nevertheless She Persisted? Gender Peer Effects in Doctoral STEM Programs By Valerie K. Bostwick; Bruce A. Weinberg
  3. Men. Roots and Consequences of Masculinity Norms By Baranov, Victoria; de Haas, Ralph; Grosjean, Pauline

  1. By: Priyanka Chakraborty (Southern Methodist University); Danila Serra (Southern Methodist University)
    Abstract: Top leadership positions involve the necessity of making decisions, like promotions, demotions and dismissals, which please some employees and upset others. We examine whether gender differences in aversion to the possibility of worker backlash may contribute to the gender leadership gap. We address this question through a novel laboratory experiment that simulates corporate decision-making. We find that: 1) women are significantly less likely to self-select into a managerial position when facing the possibility of receiving angry messages from employees; 2) once in a leadership position, women perform no differently than men; 3) male and female managers have different leadership styles; and 4) female managers receive significantly more angry messages from employees.
    Keywords: Gender differences, leadership, experiment.
    JEL: C92 D91 J16
    Date: 2018–10
  2. By: Valerie K. Bostwick; Bruce A. Weinberg
    Abstract: We study the effects of peer gender composition, a proxy for female-friendliness of environment, in STEM doctoral programs on persistence and degree completion. Leveraging unique new data and quasi-random variation in gender composition across cohorts within programs, we show that women entering cohorts with no female peers are 11.9pp less likely to graduate within 6 years than their male counterparts. A 1 sd increase in the percentage of female students differentially increases the probability of on-time graduation for women by 4.6pp. These gender peer effects function primarily through changes in the probability of dropping out in the first year of a Ph.D. program and are largest in programs that are typically male-dominated.
    JEL: I23 J16 O3
    Date: 2018–09
  3. By: Baranov, Victoria; de Haas, Ralph (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research); Grosjean, Pauline
    Abstract: Recent research has uncovered the historical roots of gender norms about women and the persistent effect of such norms on economic development. We find similar long-term effects of masculinity norms: beliefs about the proper conduct of men. We exploit a natural historical experiment in which convict transportation in the 18th and 19th century created a variegated spatial pattern of sex ratios across Australia. We show that in areas that were heavily male-biased in the past (though not the present) more Australians recently voted against same-sex marriage, an institution at odds with traditional masculinity norms. Survey data show that this voting pattern is mostly driven by men. Further evidence indicates that these historically male-biased areas also remain characterized by more violence, excessive alcohol consumption, and occupational gender segregation. We interpret these behaviors as manifestations of masculinity norms that emerged due to intense local male-male competition and that persisted over time.
    Keywords: masculinity; sex ratio; natural experiment; cultural persistence; same-sex marriage
    JEL: I31 J12 J16 N37 Z13
    Date: 2018

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