nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2018‒09‒17
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Origins of Gender Norms: Sibling Gender Composition and Women's Choice of Occupation and Partner By Brenøe, Anne Ardila
  2. Gender, risk preference and willingness to compete in a random sample of the Swedish population By Boschini, Anne; Dreber, Anna; von Essen, Emma; Muren, Astri; Ranehill, Eva
  3. Job Tasks and the Gender Wage Gap among College Graduates By Todd Stinebrickner; Ralph Stinebrickner; Paul Sullivan
  4. Catching Up to Girls: Understanding the Gender Imbalance in Educational Attainment Within Race By Aucejo, Esteban; James, Jonathan

  1. By: Brenøe, Anne Ardila (University of Zurich)
    Abstract: I examine how one central aspect of the childhood family environment – sibling gender composition – affects women's gender conformity, measured through their choice of occupation and partner. Using Danish administrative data, I causally estimate the effect of having a second-born brother relative to a sister for first-born women. The results show that women with a brother acquire more traditional gender norms with negative consequences for their labor earnings. I provide evidence of increased gender-specialized parenting in families with mixed-sex children, suggesting a stronger transmission of traditional gender norms. Finally, I find indications of persistent effects to the next generation of girls.
    Keywords: gender identity, sibling gender, occupational choice, family formation
    JEL: I2 J1 J3
    Date: 2018–07
  2. By: Boschini, Anne (SOFI, Stockholm University); Dreber, Anna (Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics,); von Essen, Emma (SOFI, Stockholm University,); Muren, Astri (Department of Economics, Stockholm University,); Ranehill, Eva (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: Experimental results from student or other non-representative convenience samples often suggest that men, on average, are more risk-taking and competitive than women. Here we explore whether these gender preference gaps also exist in a simple random sample of the Swedish adult population. Our design comprises four different treatments to systematically explore how the experimental context may impact gender gaps; a baseline treatment, a treatment where participants are primed with their own gender, and a treatment where the participants know the gender of their counterpart (man or woman). We look at willingness to compete in two domains: a math task and a verbal task. We find no gender differences in risk preferences or in willingness to compete in the verbal task in this random sample. There is some support for men being more competitive than women in the math task, in particular in the pooled sample. The effect size is however considerably smaller than what is typically found. We further find no consistent impact of treatment on (the absence of) the gender gap in preferences.
    Keywords: Gender differences; competitiveness; risk-taking; experiment; random representative sample
    JEL: C83 C91 D91
    Date: 2018–08–31
  3. By: Todd Stinebrickner (Western University); Ralph Stinebrickner (University of Western Ontario); Paul Sullivan (American University)
    Abstract: Gender differences in current and past job tasks may be crucial for understanding the gender wage gap. We use novel task data to address well-known measurement concerns, including that standard task measures assume away within-occupation gender differences in tasks. We find that unique measures of task-specific experience, in particular high-skilled information experience, are of particular importance for understanding the substantial widening of the wage gap early in the career. Highlighting the importance of these measures, traditional work-related proxies for gender differences in human capital accumulation are not informative because general work experience is similar by gender for our recent graduates.
    Keywords: gender gap, gender wage differentials, human capital
    JEL: J16 J31 J62 J24
    Date: 2018–09
  4. By: Aucejo, Esteban; James, Jonathan
    Abstract: Black females are 17 percentage points more likely to attend college than black males, making the gender gap among black youth larger than the black-white racial gap in college enrollment (14.7 pp). We estimate a sequential model of schooling and arrests to assess the major contributing factors to the gender imbalance in educational attainment within racial groups. First, we find that differences between males and females in measures of early behavior account for the majority of the gender gap for each racial group. Second, despite the fact that 50% of black males were arrested at least once before age 25, we find little evidence that arrest outcomes influence educational attainment, and that the negative correlation of educational attainment and arrests is entirely attributable to the same behavioral factors that explain the gender gap in education. Finally, we find that black males have the largest response to improvements in family background characteristics, such that equalizing the distribution of family background characteristics for black and white youths reduces the gender gap in college enrollment among black youth by 50% and completely eliminates the black-white racial gap in college enrollment.
    Keywords: Behavior; Educational Attainment; Factors; Gender Gap; race
    JEL: I2 J15 J16
    Date: 2018–08

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