nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2018‒09‒10
nine papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Independent Thinking and Hard Working, or Caring and Well Behaved? Short- and Long-Term Impacts of Gender Identity Norms By Rodríguez-Planas, Núria; Sanz-de-Galdeano, Anna; Terskaya, Anastasia
  2. Gender Wage Gap at the Top, Job Inflexibility and Product Market Competition By Heyman, Fredrik; Norbäck, Pehr-Johan; Persson, Lars
  3. Dynamics of the Gender Gap in High Math Achievement By Glenn Ellison; Ashley Swanson
  4. Top incomes and income dynamics from a gender perspective: Evidence from Finland 1995-2012 By Terhi Ravaska
  5. Implicit Stereotypes: Evidence from Teachers' Gender Bias By Carlana, Michela
  6. Paying for gender? The gender price gap in Central Kenyan vegetable markets By Depenbusch, Lutz
  7. Gender Grading Bias at Stockholm University: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from an Anonymous Grading Reform By Jansson, Joakim; Tyrefors, Björn
  8. Race and Gender Affinities in Voting: Experimental Evidence By Penney, Jeffrey; Tolley, Erin; Goodyear-Grant, Elizabeth
  9. The Effects of Sexism on American Women: The Role of Norms vs. Discrimination By Kerwin Kofi Charles; Jonathan Guryan; Jessica Pan

  1. By: Rodríguez-Planas, Núria (Queens College, CUNY); Sanz-de-Galdeano, Anna (Universidad de Alicante); Terskaya, Anastasia (Universidad de Alicante)
    Abstract: Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we explore the causal effect of gender-identity norms on female teenagers' engagement in risky behaviors relative to boys in the US. To do so, we exploit idiosyncratic variation across adjacent grades within schools in the proportion of high-school peers' mothers who think that important skills for both boys and girls to possess are traditionally masculine ones, such as to think for him or herself or work hard, as opposed to traditionally feminine ones, namely to be well-behaved, popular or help others. We find that a higher proportion of mothers who believe that independent thinking and working hard matter for either gender reduces the gender gap in risky behaviors, traditionally more prevalent among males, both in the short and medium run. We also find evidence of convergence in the labor market in early adulthood. Short- and medium-run results are driven by a reduction in males' engagement in risky behaviors; long-run results are driven by females' higher annual earnings and lower welfare dependency.
    Keywords: gender-identity norms, short-, medium- and long-run effects, risky behaviors and labor market outcomes, Add Health
    JEL: I10 I12 J15 J16 J22 Z13
    Date: 2018–07
  2. By: Heyman, Fredrik; Norbäck, Pehr-Johan; Persson, Lars
    Abstract: Research show that women are disadvantaged in inflexible occupations. We show that this will imply that female managers are on average more skilled than male managers. Due to the higher hurdles faced by women, only the most skilled among them will pursue a management career. This implies that female managers will, on average, be more beneficial for the firm when product market competition is intense. Using detailed matched employee-employer data, we find that (i) more intense product market competition leads to relatively higher wages for female managers and (ii) the share of female managers is higher in firms in more competitive industries.
    Keywords: Career; Competition; Gender wage-gap; Job Inflexibility; Management
    JEL: J7 L2 M5
    Date: 2018–07
  3. By: Glenn Ellison; Ashley Swanson
    Abstract: This paper examines the dynamics of the gender gap in high math achievement over the high school years using data from the American Mathematics Competition. A clear gender gap is already present by 9th grade and the gender gap widens over the high school years. High-achieving students must substantially improve their performance from year to year to maintain their within-cohort rank, but there is nonetheless a great deal of persistence in the rankings. Several gender-related differences in the dynamics contribute to the widening of the gender gap, including differences in dropout rates and in the mean and variance of year-to-year improvements among continuing students. A decomposition indicates that the most important difference is that fewer girls make large enough gains to move up substantially in the rankings. An analysis of students on the margin of qualifying for a prestigious second stage exam provides evidence of a discouragement effect: some react to falling just short by dropping out of participating in future years, and this reaction is more common among girls.
    JEL: I20 J16
    Date: 2018–08
  4. By: Terhi Ravaska (University of Tampere and Labour Institute for Economic Research, Finland)
    Abstract: In this paper I study Finnish top incomes from a gender perspective using the Finnish register-based panel data over the period of 1995-2012. I find that that the under-representation of women at the top has been quite persistent in the overall top but the proportion of women in the top 1\% has increased over 18 years. Women’s wage share at the top has increased while the self-employment income has decreased. The top income females more often have an entrepreneurial background and are more often sharing a household with a high-income spouse. The gender-specific income distributions show that female incomes are less dispersed. In this study I also test whether top incomes can be assumed to be Pareto distributed. While the joint and men’s top income distributions can be approximated with Pareto distribution throughout the observation period, the Pareto assumption gets more support for women after the year 2000. The female top income receivers have caught up with top earning men over time but I also show that females are more likely to move downwards from the top than men.
    Keywords: income distribution, gender inequality, top incomes, income mobility.
    JEL: D31 J16 D63 D30
    Date: 2018–05
  5. By: Carlana, Michela (Harvard Kennedy School)
    Abstract: I study whether exposure to teachers' stereotypes, as measured by the Gender-Science Implicit Association Test, affects student achievement. I provide evidence that the gender gap in math performance substantially increases when students are assigned to teachers with stronger gender stereotypes. Teachers' stereotypes induce girls to underperform in math and self-select into less demanding high-schools, following the track recommendation of their teachers. These effects are at least partially driven by a lower self-confidence on own math ability of girls exposed to gender biased teachers. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that stereotypes impair the test performance of ability-stigmatized groups, who end up failing to achieve their full potential.
    Keywords: gender, math, teachers, implicit stereotypes, IAT, self-confidence, track choice
    JEL: J16 J24 I24
    Date: 2018–07
  6. By: Depenbusch, Lutz
    Abstract: We analyze the gender price gap (GPG) in Central Kenyan vegetable markets. Exploiting differences in the combination of the gender of the household head, the person controlling production, and the seller, we control for other gender related in uences. We cannot identify a signifcant GPG for the population as a whole but find an u-shaped relationship between the GPG and the sold quantities. Also, we observe that female control over marketing is negatively associated with the commercialization of vegetable trade. This indicates that besides the absence of an average GPG, women are disadvantaged in larger scale markets. These findings support recent experimental evidence that the GPG depends on the perceived competence and entitlement as women are traditionally active in small scale local vegetable trade but not in large scale trade in the survey region. Also, it is a warning that women might be left behind in an increasingly commercializing market, even though they traditionally controlled it.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Farm Management, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Production Economics
    Date: 2017–10–01
  7. By: Jansson, Joakim (Stockholm University); Tyrefors, Björn (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: In this paper, we first present novel evidence of grading bias against women at the university level. This is in contrast to previous results at the secondary education level. Contrary to the gender composition at lower levels of education in Sweden, the teachers and graders at the university level are predominantly male. Thus, an in-group bias mechanism could consistently explain the evidence from both the university and secondary education level. However, we find that in-group bias can only explain approximately 20 percent of the total grading bias effect at the university level.
    Keywords: Grading bias; University; Discrimination; Education; Anonymous grading
    JEL: I23 J16
    Date: 2018–08–21
  8. By: Penney, Jeffrey; Tolley, Erin; Goodyear-Grant, Elizabeth
    Abstract: We analyze the results of a large-scale experiment wherein subjects participate in a hypothetical primary election and must choose between two fictional candidates who vary by sex and race. We find evidence of affnities along these dimensions in voting behaviour. A number of phenomena regarding these affnities and their interactions are detailed and explored. We find that they compete with each other on the basis of race and gender. Neuroeconomic metrics suggest that people who vote for own race candidates tend to rely more on heuristics than those who do not.
    Keywords: Financial Economics, Public Economics
    Date: 2016–10
  9. By: Kerwin Kofi Charles; Jonathan Guryan; Jessica Pan
    Abstract: We study how reported sexism in the population affects American women. Fixed-effects and TSLS estimates show that higher prevailing sexism where she was born (background sexism) and where she currently lives (residential sexism) both lower a woman's wages, labor force participation and ages of marriage and childbearing. We argue that background sexism affects outcomes through the influence of previously-encountered norms, and that estimated associations regarding specific percentiles and male versus female sexism suggest that residential sexism affects labor market outcomes through prejudice-based discrimination by men, and non-labor market outcomes through the influence of current norms of other women.
    JEL: J12 J13 J16 J22 J31 J7 Z10
    Date: 2018–08

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