nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2018‒09‒03
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender Segregation in Education and Its Implications for Labour Market Outcomes: Evidence from India By Sahoo, Soham; Klasen, Stephan
  2. Do women ask for lower salaries? The supply side of the gender pay gap By Martín González Rozada; Eduardo Levy Yeyati
  3. Coordinated Work Schedules and the Gender Wage Gap By German Cubas; Chinhui Juhn; Pedro Silos
  4. Experimental estimates of men's and women's willingness to compete: Does the gender of the partner matter? By Jung, Seeun; Vranceanu, Radu
  5. Historic Sex-Ratio Imbalances Predict Female Participation in the Market for Politicians By Grant, Iris; Kesternich, Iris; Steckenleiter, Carina; Winter, Joachim
  6. Gender as a discriminating factor in employee networking and intention to develop employability through career strategies By Dominique Bencherqui; Anne Janand; Mohamed Kefi

  1. By: Sahoo, Soham (Indian Institute of Management Bangalore); Klasen, Stephan (University of Göttingen)
    Abstract: This paper investigates gender-based segregation across different fields of study at the post-secondary level of schooling, and how that affects subsequent labour market outcomes of men and women. Using a nationally representative longitudinal data-set from India, we provide evidence that there is substantial intra-household gender disparity in the choice of study stream at the higher-secondary level of education. A household fixed effects regression shows that girls are 20 percentage points less likely than boys to study in technical streams, namely science (STEM) and commerce, vis-à-vis arts or humanities. This gender disparity is not driven by gender specific differences in mathematical ability, as the gap remains large and significant even after controlling for individuals' past test scores. Our further analysis on working-age individuals suggests that technical stream choice at higher-secondary level significantly affects the gender gap in labour market outcomes in adult life, including labour force participation, nature of employment, and earnings. Thus our findings reveal how gender disparity in economic outcomes at a later stage in the life-course is affected by gendered trajectories set earlier in life, especially at the school level.
    Keywords: post-secondary education, STEM, gender, labour market, India
    JEL: I20 J16 J24
    Date: 2018–07
  2. By: Martín González Rozada; Eduardo Levy Yeyati
    Abstract: The gender gap usually denotes observable differences between men and women that are influenced by the social environment. In the workplace, it refers to systematic differences in job opportunities and salaries (controlling for the characteristics of the job and the employee). Statistics have shown that men often earn more for the same work than women, a difference that may reflect that men work more hours (an aspect compounded by the fact that they work highly-paid overtime) or tend to work relatively more in high-pay activities (horizontal gap), to prevail in top positions within a company (vertical gap), or to be offered lower pay for the same work. Most of these analyses are based on outcomes (actual wages being paid), as it is usually assumed that the gap is driven by a demand bias: for a number or reasons, a male society is willing to pay less for a woman than for a man doing the same task. But is it not possible that the gender gap is already embedded in the labor supply? To what extent the gender pay gap reflects an “ask gap”? More specifically: do women ask for less, for the same exact job? Many factors can determine gender-driven differences in labor supply. For starters, men and women may exhibit gender differences in preferences or self-assessments regarding specific occupational choices. Cortes & Pan (2017) based on features described in the BLS’s Occupational Information Network (or O*NET), document that the female-to-male-ratio (FMR) increases for occupations in a softer competitive environment, exhibiting a larger social contribution, or enjoying greater flexibility and a lower intensity in physical effort; and that more competitive and inflexible environments are associated with a larger gender gap. Kleinjans, Krassel & Dukes (2017) argue that women display a preference for jobs with “occupational prestige” and high social standing (at the expense of a lower wage). Finally, Correll (2001) reports that occupational choices are gender determined: males are perceived (by males and females) as better equipped for math (despite weak supporting empirical evidence in this regard), which in turn may determine performance self-assessment and, ultimately, occupational choices. In addition, it has been pointed out that women prefer to work in female-friendly environments. For example, Lordan and Pischke (2016) find a strong positive relationship between female satisfaction and the female-to-male-ratio, both in the occupation and in the firm, while males either like or are indifferent to the share of males in an occupation. Barbulescu and Bidwell (2013) find that women prefer jobs with better anticipated work-life balance and lower identification with stereotypically masculine jobs, which results in lower expectations of job offer success in male dominated jobs. Another aspect highlighted by the literature relates to women´s relative propensity to wage bargain. On this front, the evidence is mixed. Early studies find that women are less likely than men to initiate negotiations (Babcock & Laschever 2003; Babcock et al 2007), and experimental research has shown that women choose competitive pay-offs to a lesser extent than men (as Datta Gupta et al, 2006 suggests, because of higher risk aversion; see also Niederle & Vesterlund, 2005). However, Artz, Goodhall & Oswald (2016) finds no evidence that women are less prone to requesting wage raises than men, while Kaschner, Kugler, Reif & Brodbeck (2013), based on a meta-analysis of 24 studies that explore gender differences related to wage negotiations, conclude that women have a lower, albeit minor, propensity to negotiate, and Freund, Hüffmeier, Mazei & Stuhlmacher (2014), in another meta-analysis of 51 studies of negotiation outcomes, find that men tend to reach better economic outcomes than women but the difference narrows for women with negotiation experience, or when negotiation ranges are explicitly communicated (a result also reported by Leibbrandt & List (2012). Existing studies on the supply-side determinants of the gender gap based quantitative data on actual asked wages are relatively scarce and yield mixed results. Based on survey where recent social science graduates in Sweden are asked to report their respective bids “for the initial job they got in their field of major”, Save-Soderbergh (2007) finds that women “consistently submit lower wage bids than men do” (due to “lack of incentives to safe promote”). Alternatively, Galperin, Cruces and Greppi (2017), based on a field experiment where 2800 frelancers were asked to apply for a job using an online platform for short-term contracts in Spain (Nubelo), find that “women don´t ask for less”.
    Date: 2018–07
  3. By: German Cubas (University of Houston); Chinhui Juhn (University of Houston); Pedro Silos (Temple University)
    Abstract: Married women with kids that are full time workers work less and allocate more time to home production than their men counterparts. At the same time the labor market is characterized by occupations that differ in terms of the coordination of the work schedule. Workers that work in occupations that concentrate hours at peak times of the day are paid a higher wage, but relatively lower if they are women. The higher demand for family time women face restricts their occupational choice and thus drives a gap in their earnings relative to men. We incorporate these trade offs in an occupational choice model with home production in which workers have comparative advantages to work into different occupations. In the model, labor supply, the supply of family time and the occupational choice are intimately related. The effect of differences in household care responsibilities between men and women in their occupational choice explain half of the observed gender earnings gap.
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Jung, Seeun (Inha University, Department of Economics); Vranceanu, Radu (ESSEC Research Center, ESSEC Business School)
    Abstract: In a classical experiment, Niederle and Vesterlund (2007) used the dichotomous choice of individuals between a piece rate and a tournament payment scheme as an indication of their propensity to compete. This paper reports results from a two person interaction of a similar type to analyze whether the preference for competition is dependent on the gender of the partner. It introduces a Becker–DeGroot–Marschak mechanism to elicit individual willingness to compete (WTC), defined as the amount of money that makes an individual indifferent between the two compensation schemes. Even when controlling for risk aversion, past performance and overconfidence, the male WTC is e3.30 larger than the female WTC. The WTC instrument allows for a more precise analysis of the impact of the partner's gender on the taste for competition.
    Keywords: willingness-to-compete; experiments; gender effect; BDM mechanism
    JEL: C91 D03
    Date: 2017–01
  5. By: Grant, Iris (KU Leuven); Kesternich, Iris (KU Leuven); Steckenleiter, Carina (University of St. Gallen); Winter, Joachim (LMU Munich)
    Abstract: We analyze the long-term effects of gender imbalances on female labor force participation, in particular in the market for politicians. We exploit variation in sex ratios - the number of men divided by the number of women in a region - across Germany induced by WWII. In the 1990 elections, women were more likely to run for office in constituencies that had relatively fewer men in 1946. We do not find a significant effect of the sex ratio on the likelihood of a woman winning the election. These results suggest that while women were more likely to run for a seat in parliament in constituencies with lower historical sex ratios, voters were not more inclined to vote for them. Voter demand effects thus do not appear to be as strong as candidate supply effects.
    Keywords: female politicians; gender stereotypes; occupational choice; sex imbalance;
    JEL: J16 J24 N44
    Date: 2018–08–28
  6. By: Dominique Bencherqui (ISTEC - Institut supérieur des Sciences, Techniques et Economie Commerciales - ISTEC); Anne Janand (LARGEPA - Laboratoire de recherche en sciences de gestion Panthéon-Assas - UP2 - Université Panthéon-Assas); Mohamed Kefi (ISTEC - Institut supérieur des Sciences, Techniques et Economie Commerciales - ISTEC)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to seek to shed light on how French workers, men and women, use their professional connections, in order to develop their employability and deploy their career strategies. This article uses a quantitative methodology to examine the effect of gender on employee networking, intentions to develop employability and career strategies within a sample of 410 French employees almost evenly divided between men and women. Our findings show that men prefer to develop their internal employability by forming and developing instrumentally-driven, intra-organizational networks. Women prefer to develop their external employability, notably by forming their own instrumentally-driven, inter-organizational networks, in an effort to adopt career strategies that can be best characterized as " boundaryless ". Allowing and fostering networking, without making any gender distinctions and moving toward " career communities, " would be a strategic move for firms. It would cater to employees' individual aspirations in terms of career strategies and, by developing workers' employability, would contribute to firms' capacity to remain agile in increasingly turbulent times.
    Abstract: L'objectif de cet article est de comprendre la manière dont les salariés français, hommes et femmes, utilisent leurs liens professionnels pour développer leur employabilité et mettre en oeuvre leurs stratégies de carrière. Afin d'étudier l'effet du genre sur la manière dont ils mobilisent leur réseau, ainsi que sur leur intention de développer leur employabilité au travers de stratégies de carrière, une méthodologie quantitative est utilisée et examine cet effet au sein d'un échantillon de 410 salariés français, équitablement répartis entre hommes et femmes. Nos résultats montrent que les hommes préfèrent développer leur employabilité interne en s'appuyant sur des réseaux intra-organisationnels instrumentaux. Les femmes préfèrent développer leur employabilité externe, notamment en construisant leurs propres réseaux inter-organisationnels instrumentaux, dans le but de mettre en oeuvre des stratégies de carrière davantage « sans frontière ». Compte tenu de ces résultats, une démarche stratégique pour les entreprises serait de permettre et de favoriser le réseautage sans faire de distinction de genre et d'encourager la construction de « communautés de carrières ». Ceci répondrait aux aspirations individuelles des salariés en termes de stratégies de carrière et contribuerait, pour les entreprises, à rester agiles dans des périodes de plus en plus turbulentes, tout en développant l'employabilité de leurs salariés.
    Keywords: Gender,Networks,Employability,Career development,Career mobility,Mbilité de carrière,Employabilité,Développement de carrière,Réseaux,Genre
    Date: 2017

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