nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2018‒08‒13
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. When They Work with Women, Do Men Get All the Credit? By Shusen Qi; Steven Ongena; Hua Cheng
  2. Family, Firms and the Gender Wage Gap in France By Elise Coudin; Sophie Maillard; Maxime Tô
  3. Gender Bias in Job Referrals: An Experimental Test By Beugnot, Julie; Peterlé, Emmanuel
  4. The Role of Parenthood on the Gender Gap among Top Earners By Butikofer, Aline; Jensen, Sissel; Salvanes, Kjell G
  5. Willing to share? Tax compliance and gender in Europe and America By D’Attoma, John; Volintiru, Clara; Steinmo, Sven
  6. Selective matching: gender gap and network formation in research By Stéphanie Combes; Pauline Givord

  1. By: Shusen Qi (Xiamen University); Steven Ongena (University of Zurich, Swiss Finance Institute, KU Leuven, and Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)); Hua Cheng (University of Texas at Austin)
    Abstract: We study discrimination against female entrepreneurs. We analyze bank lending to 6,422 firms in 22 transition countries, both at the extensive and intensive margin. We find that gender discrimination occurs only if a firm is both managed and owned by females, especially in localities where gender bias is acute or more domestic banks are present. In contrast if either the top manager or owner is male, we find no evidence of discrimination. Importantly, these results are not driven by females having inferior skills to males.
    Keywords: Access to credit, gender, discrimination, entrepreneurship
    JEL: G21 J16 L26
    Date: 2018–01
  2. By: Elise Coudin (CREST; INSEE); Sophie Maillard (INSEE); Maxime Tô (Institut des Politiques Publiques; University College London; Institute for Fiscal Studies)
    Abstract: This paper explores how two main channels explaining the gender wage gap, namely the heterogeneity of firm pay policies and sex-specific wage consequences of parenthood, interact. We explore the firm heterogeneity channel by applying the model proposed by Card, Cardoso, and Kline 2016. After controlling for individual and firm heterogeneity, we show that the sorting of women into lower-paying firms accounts for 11 % of the average gender wage gap in the French private sector, whereas within-firm gender inequality does not contribute to the gap. Performing these decompositions all along workers’ life cycle, we find evidence that this sorting mechanism activates shortly after birth. These gender-specific and dynamic firm choices generate wage losses all along mothers’ careers, in addition to direct child wage penalties. After birth, mothers tend to favor firms with more flexible work hours and home proximity, which may be detrimental to their labor market opportunities, as, within these contexts, firms may gain relative monopsonic power.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, gender inequalities, linked employer-employee, data, two-way fixed effect models, discrimination
    JEL: J31 J71 J16
    Date: 2018–06–01
  3. By: Beugnot, Julie; Peterlé, Emmanuel
    Abstract: Employee referral programs, while efficient for the employer, have been shown to amplify sex-based occupational segregation in the labour markets. We present evidence from a laboratory experiment designed to shed light on same-gender bias in job referrals within gender-balanced networks. Our data suggest that women tend to favor women in their referral choice, whereas men do not attach much importance to the gender of potential candidates. Our experimental design allows us to disentangle between statistical discrimination, preferences, and pure same-gender bias. Our findings add to the existing literature by highlighting that gendered networks alone do not explain the observed gender homophily in referred-referrer pairs.
    Keywords: Same-gender bias, job referral, laboratory experiment
    JEL: C91 J16 J21 J71 M51
    Date: 2018–05
  4. By: Butikofer, Aline; Jensen, Sissel; Salvanes, Kjell G
    Abstract: Is the wage penalty due to motherhood larger among highly qualified women? In this paper, we study the effect of parenthood on the careers of high-achieving women relative to high-achieving men in a set of high-earning professions with either nonlinear or linear wage structures. Using Norwegian registry data, we find that the child earnings penalty for mothers in professions with a nonlinear wage structure, MBAs and lawyers, is substantially larger than for mothers in professions with a linear wage structure. The gender earnings gap for MBA and law graduates is around 30%, but substantially less for STEM and medicine graduates, 10 years after childbirth. In addition, we provide some descriptive statistics on the role of fertility timing on the child earnings penalty.
    Keywords: Gender Gap; parenthood; top jobs
    Date: 2018–07
  5. By: D’Attoma, John; Volintiru, Clara; Steinmo, Sven
    Abstract: Studies examining the effects of gender on honesty, deceptive behavior, pro-sociality, and risk aversion, often find significant differences between men and women. The present study contributes to the debate by exploiting one of the largest tax compliance experiments to date in a highly controlled environment conducted in the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Italy. Our expectation was that the differences between men’s and women’s behavior would correlate broadly with the degree of gender equality in each country. Where social, political and cultural gender equality is greater we expected behavioral differences between men and women to be smaller. In contrast, our evidence reveals that women are significantly more compliant than men in all countries. Furthermore, these patterns are quite consistent across countries in our study. In other words, the difference between men’s and women’s behavior is not significantly different in more gender neutral countries than in more traditional societies.
    Keywords: Tax compliance; gender; comparative political economy; institutions
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2017–04–01
  6. By: Stéphanie Combes (CREST; INSEE); Pauline Givord (CREST; INSEE)
    Abstract: This paper explores how the academic network extends and its consequences on research outcomes. Using a large academic bibliographic database in research in economics (RePEc), we model first the probability that two researchers collaborate, and secondly the impact of network indicators on the citation rate of research articles. Our results show the existence of a gender-based bias in the researcher matching process. Researchers are more likely to coauthor together when they are of the same gender, even when we control for productivity and proximity in the academic network before they match, as well as unobservable fixed effects of the pair of researcher. This effect is observed mostly at the beginning of the career and fades with the seniority. We also observe that network indicators have a positive impact on the citation index of research articles, suggesting that these selective matching mechanisms may have cumulative effects.
    Keywords: network analysis, selective matching, gender gap, Probit regression with fixed effects, quantile regression
    JEL: J24 O31 J45
    Date: 2018–06–16

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