nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2018‒07‒30
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Women in Top Incomes – Evidence from Sweden 1974-2013 By Boschini, Anne; Gunnarsson, Kristin; Roine, Jesper
  2. The effect of women directors on innovation activity and performance of corporate firms: Evidence from China By Töpfer, Marina
  3. Do Voters Prefer Gender Stereotypic Candidates? Evidence from a conjoint survey experiment in Japan By ONO Yoshikuni; YAMADA Masahiro
  4. Male pupils taught by female homeroom teachers show higher preference for Corporate Social Responsibility in adulthood By Eiji Yamamura; Yoshiro Tsutsui; Shunsuke Managi

  1. By: Boschini, Anne (SOFI, Stockholm University); Gunnarsson, Kristin (Department of Economics); Roine, Jesper (SITE, Stockholm School of Economics,)
    Abstract: Using a large, register-based panel data set we study gender differences in top incomes in Sweden over the period 1974-2013. We find that, while women are still a minority of the top decile group, and make up a smaller share the higher up in the distribution we move, their presence has steadily increased in all top groups over the past four decades. Top income women are wealthier and rely more on capital incomes, but the difference, relative to men, has decreased since the 1970s. Over this period capital incomes have in general become more important in the top, but the share of working-rich women has gone up, while the opposite is true for men. Realized capital gains are more important for top income women but turn out to be of a more transitory nature than for men. Mobility is generally higher for top income women compared to top income men but the trend since the 1990s is toward increased gender equality in this respect too. Finally, we find important differences between top income women and men in terms of marital status and family composition. Overall, our results suggest that many of the findings in the top income literature have a clear gender component and that understanding gender equality in the top of the distribution requires studying not only earnings and labour market outcomes but also incomes from other sources.
    Keywords: Income inequality; income distribution; gender inequality; top incomes; capital incomes; realized capital gains
    JEL: D13 D31 H20 J16 J31
    Date: 2018–03–01
  2. By: Töpfer, Marina
    Abstract: This paper elaborates whether women bringing their diversity, cross-cultural awareness and transformational leadership skills to corporate boards offer strategic advantages for firms. In the analysis the effect of women in the board room on innovation activity and corporate firm performance as well as the joint consequences of female directors and innovation activity on the firm's success are examined. The latter may be particularly important in the context of gender diversity as more gender-diverse boards allow for higher levels of creativity and hence innovation. In order to account for endogeneity issues, different model specifications are employed (two-way fixed effects models and linear dynamic panel data models). Unconditional quantile regressions are used in order to go beyond the mean. The analysis is conducted using Chinese firm-level data from 2006-2015. The results suggest positive effects of gender diversity in corporate boards and patenting activities on firm performance. Women directors are found to have statistically significant effects on both input-(positive) and output-oriented (negative) innovation activity.
    Keywords: Women Directors,Innovation Activity,Firm Performance,Gender-diverse Boards,Unconditional Quantile Regression
    JEL: G30 J16
    Date: 2018
  3. By: ONO Yoshikuni; YAMADA Masahiro
    Abstract: The striking under-representation of women in Japan has been partly attributed to gender stereotypes and prejudice toward female leadership among voters. We examine whether and to what extent candidates get rewarded or punished when they deviate from the behavioral expectations associated with their gender roles and images. Our conjoint experiment results in Japan demonstrate that not only are female candidates disadvantaged compared to their male counterparts, but also that they could lose support when they diverge from gender-based behavioral expectations. Our findings suggest that female candidates face a difficult dilemma in that they must weigh the cost of losing support for failing to conform to gender-based expectations, against the general loss of support they would incur for conforming to these expectations.
    Date: 2018–06
  4. By: Eiji Yamamura (Department of Economics, Seinan Gakuin University); Yoshiro Tsutsui (Faculty of Economics, Konan University); Shunsuke Managi (Urban Institute & School of Engineering, Kyushu University)
    Abstract: On the demand side, we test how early childhood education creates preferences for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) through teacher-student gender randommatching. Using originally collected individual-level data, we examine how female teachers in elementary school influence students f CSR stated preferences in their adulthood. In a quasi-natural experiment setting, our major findings are: (1) female teachers affect pupils f preferences for corporate responsibility later in life, (2) the effect of a female teacher is robust if she was a class teacher in first grade, (3) the effect of a female teacher is observed only for different-gender pupils but not for same-gender ones. These findings imply that the gender gap in adulthood is reduced by matching female teachers with male students in earlier years. We examine and support the female socialization hypothesis.
    Keywords: Gender difference, Female socialization, Teacher-Student Gender Matches, Corporate Social Responsibility, ESG.
    JEL: G32 G34 J16 M14 I21 H89
    Date: 2018–07

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