nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2018‒07‒16
three papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. An Advisor like Me: Does Gender Matter? By Kato, Takao; Song, Yang
  2. Gender Robustness of Overconfidence and Excess Entry By Danková, Katarína; Servátka, Maroš
  3. Gay Glass Ceilings: Sexual Orientation and Workplace Authority in the UK By Aksoy, Cevat Giray; Carpenter, Christopher S.; Frank, Jeff; Huffman, Matt L.

  1. By: Kato, Takao (Colgate University); Song, Yang (Colgate University)
    Abstract: This paper provides new causal evidence on the effects of gender congruence in the student-adviser relationship on three key student outcomes: (i) retention; (ii) grades; and (iii) post-graduation career outcomes. In so doing, we use unique administrative data from a selective liberal arts university which includes detailed longitudinal records on all students. Our identification strategy is based on the University's first-year faculty adviser assignment policy which produces randomness in whether a student has a same-gender faculty adviser. First, we find that gender congruence in the student-adviser relationship has a positive and significant effect on the odds of retention (gender congruence effect on the extensive margin) and on cumulate GPA upon graduation (gender congruence effect on the intensive margin). Second, we uncover that much of the gender congruence effect on the extensive margin tends to be concentrated in the freshman and sophomore years, while the gender congruence effect on the intensive margin is less immediate and shows up only in cumulative GPA upon graduation. The results are found to change little when we account for unobserved adviser characteristics by using adviser fixed effects. Finally, student-adviser gender congruence is found to work differently for students with different backgrounds and interests. Most notably we find that gender congruence in the student-adviser relationship is particularly helpful for academically weak students and students without STEM-orientation.
    Keywords: higher education, gender congruence, advising, academic outcomes, labor market outcomes
    JEL: I21 I23
    Date: 2018–05
  2. By: Danková, Katarína; Servátka, Maroš
    Abstract: Camerer and Lovallo (1999) present a thought-provoking experimental evidence that overconfidence might lead to excess entry into markets. As their findings are based on the majority of the sessions exclusively consisting of male participants, we replicate their experiment while including both men and women in all of our sessions. We are able to only partially replicate their main finding that the market entry decisions are driven by overconfidence. Surprisingly we also find that self-selection significantly decreases the entry rate. However, this is also where we observe gender differences in the entry rate – males who self-select into the experiment actually enter more often, which is in line with Camerer & Lovallo’s observation. Our experiment thus points out that the overconfidence effect is sensitive to the participants’ gender and experimental conditions.
    Keywords: Experiment, Gender, Market Entry, Overconfidence, Real Effort, Replication, Robustness
    JEL: C72 C9 D2
    Date: 2018–05–31
  3. By: Aksoy, Cevat Giray (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development); Carpenter, Christopher S. (Vanderbilt University); Frank, Jeff (University of London); Huffman, Matt L. (University of California, Irvine)
    Abstract: A burgeoning literature has examined earnings inequalities associated with a minority sexual orientation, but far less is known about sexual orientation-based differences in access to workplace authority – in contrast to well-documented gender and race-specific differences. We provide the first large-scale evidence on this question using confidential data from the 2009-2014 UK Integrated Household Surveys (IHS) (N = 607,709). We are the first to document that gay men and lesbians are significantly more likely to have objective measures of workplace authority compared to otherwise similar heterosexual men and women. However, we also find clear evidence that gay men face glass ceilings: their higher likelihood of attaining workplace authority is driven entirely by their significantly higher odds of being low-level managers. In fact, gay men are significantly less likely than comparable heterosexual men to be in the highest-level managerial positions that come with higher status and pay. Oaxaca decompositions suggest that this differential access to workplace authority for gay men is due to discrimination as opposed to different skills and characteristics. Moreover, this "gay glass ceiling" is stronger for racial minorities than for whites. Corresponding effects for lesbians exist but are notably weaker. These results provide the first direct evidence of social stratification in the workplace associated with a minority sexual orientation and reveal that differences are exacerbated for individuals with multiple marginalized identities.
    Keywords: sexual orientation, workplace authority, supervisory authority, managerial occupations
    JEL: J15 J71 M54
    Date: 2018–05

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