nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2018‒06‒11
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender Effects in Dictator Game Giving: Women Favour Female Recipients By Maximilian Baltrusch; Philipp Christoph Wichardt
  2. Top incomes and income dynamics from a gender perspective : Evidence from Finland 1995-2012 By Ravaska Terhi
  3. Just Like A Woman? New Comparative Evidence on the Gender Income Gap across Eastern Europe and Central Asia By Blunch, Niels-Hugo
  4. Gender Equality: Which Policies Have the Biggest Bang for the Buck? By Sonali Jain-Chandra; Kalpana Kochhar; Monique Newiak; Yang Yang; Edda Zoli
  5. Discriminate Me – if You Can! The Disappearance of the Gender Pay Gap among Public-Contest Selected Employees By Carolina Castegnetti; Luisa Rosti; Marina Töpfer
  6. Parenthood and labour market outcomes By Isabelle Sin; Kabir Dasgupta; Gail Pacheco
  7. Marriage, Labor Supply, and Home Production By Marion Goussé; Nicolas Jacquemet; Jean-Marc Robin
  8. Household Savings and Marriage Payments: Evidence from Dowry in India By Anukriti, S; Kwon, Sungoh; Prakash, Nishith

  1. By: Maximilian Baltrusch; Philipp Christoph Wichardt
    Abstract: Allowing for a free choice of the recipient’s gender in a dictator game (N = 508), we find that women show a substantial gender biased towards females. Adding a charity recipient to the possible choices, the charity becomes the primary recipient and overall transfers increase. Yet, conditioning on transfers to fellow students the gender bias of women remains. Moreover, we find that women tend more towards giving half the endowment while men tend more towards “all or nothing.” The literature on cognitive dissonance (the feeling of distress once we act against our internalised values) emphasises the importance of voluntary choice for dissonance effects to take hold. Accordingly, we interpret our results as hinting at an important detail regarding the ongoing debate about gender differences in altruistic giving: primary differences may not be found in the amount of transfers made but rather in the choice of the beneficiary’s gender.
    Keywords: dictator game, gender differences, voluntary choice, charitable giving
    JEL: C91 D64
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Ravaska Terhi (Faculty of Management, University of Tampere)
    Abstract: In this paper I study Finnish top incomes from a gender perspective using the Finnish register-based panel data over the period of 1995-2012. I find that that the under-representation of women at the top has been quite persistent in the overall top but the proportion of women in the top 1% has increased over 18 years. Women’s wage share at the top has increased while the self-employment income has decreased. The top income females more often have an entrepreneurial background and are more often sharing a household with a high-income spouse. The gender-specific income distributions show that female incomes are less dispersed. In this study I also test whether top incomes can be assumed sumed to be Pareto distributed. While the joint and men’s top income distributions can be approximated with Pareto distribution throughout the observation period, the Pareto assumption gets more support for women after the year 2000. The female top income receivers have caught up with top earning men over time but I also show that females are more likely to move downwards from the top than men.
    Keywords: income distribution, gender inequality, top incomes, income mobility
    JEL: D31 J16 D63 D30
    Date: 2018–05
  3. By: Blunch, Niels-Hugo
    Abstract: I examine the incidence and determinants of the gender income gap in Kazakhstan, Macedonia, Moldova, Serbia, Tajikistan, and Ukraine using recent household data based on an identical survey instrument across countries. Four main results are established, using a range of estimators, including OLS, interval regression, and quantile regression: (1) the presence of a substantively large gender income gap (favoring males) in all six countries; (2) some evidence of a gender-related glass ceiling in some of these countries; (3) some evidence that endowments diminish the income gaps, while the returns to characteristics increase the gaps; and (4) while observed individual characteristics explain part of the gaps, a substantial part of the income gap is left unexplained. In sum, these results are consistent with the presence of income discrimination towards females but at the same time also point towards the importance of continued attention towards institutions and economic policy for decreasing the gender income gap in these former formally gender neutral economies — notably through attention towards the maternity and paternity leave system, as well as public provision of child care.
    Keywords: Gender,income gap,Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition,detailed decomposition,maternity/paternity leave policies,Eastern Europe and Central Asia
    JEL: J16 J31 J7
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Sonali Jain-Chandra; Kalpana Kochhar; Monique Newiak; Yang Yang; Edda Zoli
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the relationship between fiscal and structural policies and gender inequality in education and labor force participation for countries at different stages of development. Due to the substantial number of possible factors that link with gender inequality previously highlighted in the literature, we pay particular attention to addressing model uncertainty and using various statistical methods to find the variables with the strongest links to gender gaps. We find that higher public spending on education, better sanitation facilities, low adolescent fertility, and narrower marriage age gaps are significantly related to narrower gender gaps in education. We also find that better infrastructure, a stronger institutional environment, more equal legal rights, and low adolescent fertility rates are strongly associated with higher female labor force participation. When labor market protection is low, an increase in protection is associated with a narrowing of labor force participation gaps between men and women. But when labor market protection levels are high, an increase in protection is associated with a widening in labor force participation gaps.
    Date: 2018–05–10
  5. By: Carolina Castegnetti (Department of Economics and Management, University of Pavia); Luisa Rosti (Department of Economics and Management, University of Pavia); Marina Töpfer (Institute of Economics, University of Hohenheim)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of public-contest recruitment on earnings for men and women using Italian microdata over a time period of ten years. We find that the gender pay gap vanishes, and even reverses among the young, when employees are selected through public contests. The results suggest that selection mechanisms such as public contests may offer a way for merit-based and gender-fair wage setting. However, since public contests and the public sector are highly correlated, we analyze the gender pay gap taking the interconnection between the public and private sector as well as the open contest issue into account. By decomposing our results by sector we find that public contests represent a necessary but not sufficient condition for merit-based and gender-fair recruitment. Similarly, the institutional environment of the public sector is a necessary but not sufficient condition for making public contests merit-based and gender-fair screening devices. These two factors taken together, cause the disappearance of the gender pay gap.
    Keywords: Gender Pay Gap, Public-Contest Recruitment, Double Sample Selection.
    JEL: J7 J13 J31
    Date: 2018–05
  6. By: Isabelle Sin (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Kabir Dasgupta (Auckland University of Technology); Gail Pacheco (Auckland University of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper is an initial exploration of what we can learn regarding the drivers of the gender pay gap in New Zealand from combining administrative wage data, birth records, and survey data on hours worked and earnings. Our particular focus is the role of parenthood penalties in this pay gap. In NZ, as internationally, the gender pay gap is larger among parents than non-parents, though the mechanisms driving this relationship are not entirely clear. We use administrative wage data to describe the distribution of how long women are out of paid employment after having their first child and how this differs with pre-parenthood income. We then look at employment rates and wage earnings among employed women each month in the five years before and ten years after birth of their first child. We also compare women who spend different lengths of time out of employment both overall and within each pre-parenthood earnings quartile. Although this does not strictly isolate the causal effect of length of time out of employment on subsequent monthly earnings, it does show how, within earnings quartiles, women who return quickly to work increase their earnings lead over those who return more slowly.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, parenthood, labour market
    JEL: E24 J12 J16 J17
    Date: 2018–05
  7. By: Marion Goussé (Département d'Economique, Université Laval - Université Laval); Nicolas Jacquemet (PSE - Paris School of Economics, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne); Jean-Marc Robin (Sciences Po Paris, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: We develop a search model of marriage where men and women draw utility from private consumption and leisure, and from a non-market good that is produced in the home using time resources. We condition individual decisions on wages, education, and an index of family attitudes. A match-specific, stochastic bliss shock induces variation in matching given wages, education, and family values, and triggers renegotiation and divorce. Using BHPS (1991–2008) data, we take as given changes in wages, education, and family values by gender, and study their impact on marriage decisions and intra-household resource allocation. The model allows to evaluate how much of the observed gender differences in labor supply results from wages, education, and family attitudes. We find that family attitudes are a strong determinant of comparative advantages in home production of men and women, whereas education complementarities induce assortative mating through preferences.
    Keywords: structural estimation,Search-matching,bargaining,assortative mating,collective models,time uses,social norms,gender identity
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Anukriti, S (Boston College); Kwon, Sungoh (University of Connecticut); Prakash, Nishith (University of Connecticut)
    Abstract: This paper examines how traditional marriage market institutions affect households' financial decisions. We study how bride-to-groom marriage payments, i.e., dowries, influence saving behavior in rural India. Exploiting variation in firstborn gender and heterogeneity in dowry amounts across marriage markets, we find that the prospect of paying higher dowry increases household savings, which are primarily financed through increased paternal labor supply. This is the first paper that highlights this alternative motive for savings in dowry-paying societies. However, we find no impacts of dowry expectations on son-preferring fertility behaviors and investments in girls.
    Keywords: household savings, dowry, marriage payments, India, labor supply, fertility, sex ratio, child investments
    JEL: J1 D14 O15
    Date: 2018–04

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